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The Builder Magazine 

January 1923 - Volume IX - Number 1 

“LET THERE BE LIGHT” 

FREEMASONRY IN CHILE 
By Bro. George Lanzarotti, Chile 
OUR NEW HEADQUARTERS 
By The Editor 

WAS DR. JOHNSON A FREEMASON? 

By Bro. Arthur Heiron, England 
THE AMEX-MASONIC CLUB 
By Bro. Aubrey O. Bray, Arizona 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

THE NATIONAL MASONIC RESEARCH SOCETY 

ANAMOSA, IOWA . 

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THE NATIONAL MASONIC RESEARCH SOCIETY 

The National Masonic Research Society was founded in 1914 at Anamosa, Iowa, 
under authority of the Grand Lodge of Iowa to serve as a national association for the 
dissemination of Masonic knowledge and for kindred activities. It is strictly non- 
commercial in its nature and aims only at the largest possible usefulness to 



Freemasonry. Its record thus far fulfills the prophecies of its founders, and justifies an 
ever larger hope for its future. 


GENERAL OBJECTS 


The encouragement of every form of Masonic reading, study, research, and 
authorship. 


The collection and preservation of materials of value for Masonic study. 


The publication of a journal devoted to the interpretation of the history, nature, and 
present day activities of all the Rites, Order and Degrees of Freemasonry. 


The promotion and supervision of meetings for Masonic discussion and study. 


The organization of Masonic Study Clubs and the publication of courses of study. 


The publication and distribution of Masonic books. 


The encouragement of individuals and groups devoted to private Masonic research. 


Cooperation with all possible agencies in the creation of an adequate Masonic 
literature, and in the development of a competent Masonic leadership. 



Service Grand Lodges and other sovereign Masonic bodies and responsible agencies 
in special surveys, reports, and investigations. 


Assistance to lodges and other bodies in the formation of Masonic libraries, reading 
rooms, book clubs, etc. 


For eight years and more the Society has been successfully carrying on the activities 
described in the above list, which is typical and not exhaustive. In so doing it has 
been assisted by Masonic officials, leaders, scholars, authors, and students in every 
state in the Union and in every country of the world, all of whom by this activity have 
been drawn closer to that which is the dream of every intelligent Mason - the 
Republic of Masonic thought and letters. 


THE BUILDER 


THE BUILDER is the official monthly journal of the Society which goes to each 
member as one of the privileges of his membership, and is not offered for sale to the 
general public, nor is it in the competitive commercial field. It is edited in the 
interests of sound, constructive policies and aims at creating among Masons a more 
heartfelt appreciation of Freemasonry, and at making the spirit and principles of 
Freemasonry prevail in the world. Every member of the Society is requested to 
cooperate with the board of editors by contributions and by constructive criticism. 


MEMBERSHIP 


Any Master Mason in good standing in any part of the world becomes eligible for 
membership upon signing the Society's application form, a copy of which will be 
furnished upon request. Each member is entitled to THE BUILDER, and to all other 
privileges of membership, among which are the following: 



Questions about Freemasonry are answered, and any kind of Masonic information is 
furnished. 


Study Clubs or other groups for Masonic study; or Masonic book clubs, or for special 
research, are organized and encouraged. 


Addresses, or materials for addresses are furnished. 


New or secondhand Masonic books are secured, sold, loaned, or purchased. 


Architectural advice on the erection of Masonic edifices, or on the remodeling, 
decorating, or furnishing of lodge rooms is given. 


Any Mason can be put in touch with any other Mason or group of Masons anywhere 
in the world. 


Selected lists of Masonic books are recommended to individuals or to lodges. 


FORMS OF MEMBERSHIP 


There is no joining fee, and all members receive THE BUILDER free. 


1. Membership dues $2.50 per year. Membership may begin at any time. 



2. Life members may commute dues for life by paying $50.00 at one time. 


3. Fellows (engaged in actual research), $10.00 on notice of election. 


4 Patrons, being Masons who shall have contributed $1000 or more to the objects of 
the Society, and shall be entitled to all its privileges for life. 


For members in the United States, Canada, Cuba, Newfoundland, Mexico, Philippine 
Islands and Porto Rico, the dues are $2.50 per year; elsewhere $3.00 per year. 


BOARD OF EDITORS 
Editor-in-Chief - H.L.Haywood 


Associate Editors 

Louis Block, Iowa. 

Robert I. Clegg Ohio. 

Charles F. Irwin, Ohio. 

Joseph Fort Newton, New York. 
Alanson B. Skinner, Wisconsin. 
Jacob Hugo Tatsch, California. 
Dudley Wright, England. 



Address all communications to 


The National Masonic Research Society, 
2920 First Avenue East, Cedar Rapids, Iowa 


ALI, ARTICLES IN THIS MAGAZINE COPYRIGHTED, 1923, 


BY 


THE NATIONAL MASONIC RESEARCH SOCIETY 


Entered as second-class matter January 2, 1915, at the post office at Anamosa, Iowa, 
under the Act of August 21, 1912. Application for transfer to Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 
pending. 


Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in section 1103, Act of 
October 3, 1917, authorized on June 29th, 1918. 


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January 1923 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 


FRONTISPIECE - H.L. Haywood 


OUR NEW HEADQUARTERS - By The Editor 

AN INTERPRETATION OF THE PLUMB LINE - By Bro. Channing Gordon 
Lawrence, New Brunswick 


ST. LOUIS LODGE TRAVELS TO ALEXANDRIA, VA., TO CONFER 
MASTER'S DEGREE - Capital News Service 


BROTHER SIR CHARLES WARREN, P.G.D., PAST DISTRICT GRAND 
MASTER, EASTERN ARCHIPELAGO - By Bro. Dudley Wright, England 


FREEMASONRY IN CHILE - By Bro. George Lanzarotti, Chile 


THE TRESTLE BOARD - By Bro. H.L. Haywood, Iowa 


WAS DR. JOHNSON A FREEMASON? SOME PHASES OF HIS LIFE - By Bro. 
Arthur Heiron, England 


GOVERNMENT TO ASSIST IN SHRINE MEET IN JUNE - Capital News Service 


A BUILDER - Poem - Selected 



MEMORIALS TO GREAT MEN WHO WERE MASONS - WILLIAM PINKNEY - 
By Bro. G. W. Baird, P. G. M., District of Columbia 


THE AMEX-MASONIC CLUB - By Bro. Aubrey O. Bray, Arizona 


WE BUILD! - Poem - George Sanford Holmes 


FREEMASONRY’S RESPONSE TO THE CHALLENGE OF FORT BAYARD - By 
Bro. Francis E. Lester, P. G. M., New Mexico 


THE STUDY CLUB - The Teachings of Masonry - Part XVII, Brotherly Aid - By 
Bro. H. L. Haywood, Iowa - Supplemental References - Our Study Club Plan 


EDITORIAL 


The Larger Meaning of the Thomson Trial 


Masons and Schools 


Illegal Wearing of Lodge Emblems 


THE LIBRARY 



A Unique Book on Freemasonry 


Information Concerning "Ancient Freemasonry and the Old Dundee Lodge No. 18 
1722 - 1920 " 


Two New Books on Freemasonry 


"Le Livre du Maitre" 


A Sociological Study of the Negro, with a Note on "Negro Masonry" 


The Period of the Wars of the Roses 


PUBLICATIONS WANTED, FOR SALE, AND EXCHANGE 


THE QUESTION BOX 


John Adams Not a Mason 


The Comenius Society 



Wants Truth About Templars 


Why does THE BUILDER Copyright Its Articles? 


How to Order Books from Publishers 


Old Age and Freemasonry 


Articles in THE BUILDER on King Solomon's Temple 


Origin of "Shibboleth" 


The Masonic Connections of President James Buchanan 


Anent Negro Masonry 


CORRESPONDENCE 


An Old Masonic Pitcher 


Governor Wise of Virginia 



AN ANTI-MASONIC RESEARCH GROUP 


YE EDITOR'S CORNER 


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A Journal For The Masonic Student 


Published Monthly by the National Masonic Research Society 


VOLUME IX 
NUMBER 1 


January, 1923 


TWO DOLLARS FIFTY CENTS THE YEAR 
TWENTY-FIVE CENTS THE COPY 


Our New Headquarters 


BY THE EDITOR 



BY THE time these words reach the reader we shall have moved into our new 
headquarters building at 2920 First Avenue East, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, where, under 
ideal conditions and with a complete outlay of the most modem equipment, we shall 
undertake anew the tasks to which this Society was dedicated nine years ago, and 
which it formally undertook in January, 1915. Immediately behind the headquarters 
building stands an ideally equipped plant in which THE BUILDER will be printed 
and books published. In the headquarters building itself we shall have every 
imaginable convenience by way of offices, staff rooms, library, cafe, radio room, 
book room, stock room, mailing room, vaults, archives and everything else needed for 
the carrying on of our work. Members and their friends hereby are extended an urgent 
invitation to drop into the reception room for a visit over the headquarters building, of 
which we are sure they will feel very proud. 


The Society will profit in many ways by this removal. It will now be near the postal 
center of the country and thereby have ideal mailing convenience. It will be in a 
railway center with easy access to tmnk lines. And above all it will have as a near 
neighbor the Iowa Masonic Library, one of the greatest collections of Masonic books 
anywhere in existence, and manned by a staff of librarians always ready to lend their 
assistance to any enterprise of Masonic reading, study, or information whatsoever. 


Meanwhile we are enlarging our own staffs and facilities to care for the rapidly 
expanding volume of our activities. Never before was the Society so healthy, its 
outlook so inspiring, or its friends so ready to con operate. Unless an accident 
intervenes - which God forfend - one or two more years should bring to complete 
fulfillment the dreams of its founders who, many years ago, foresaw its place and its 
possibilities. 


Of the new developments within the Society during the past year two stand out as 
deserving especial notice. One is the successful outcome of an experiment of a new 
type of research by means of private groups, cooperating through the mails under the 
leadership of a group chairman, all the members of each group being bound together 



by their ability and their interest in some phase or problem of Masonry. Undertaken 
as an experiment two years ago this venture has proved so successful that three of 
these groups are now ready to publish books, and others will be similarly ready in six 
months or another year. The other outstanding development is of a piece with this, 
and makes possible its fulfillment. Through the instrumentality of the Society certain 
of the big publishers of the country are now preparing to issue a very extended 
program of Masonic books, a thing so sadly needed these many years. This means 
that in the course of time the Fraternity will have a literature worthy of it and 
adequate to its needs, and that the leaders of the Craft will have placed at their 
disposal the guidance and the information they have so long desired. 


While writing these lines there has come to ye editor's desk a great sheaf of letters 
from members of the Society written in reply to a circular letter recently mailed out 
by Brother Wildey E. Atchison, who has labored so indefatigably and to such good 
purpose these past six years as our Assistant Secretary. It is a remarkable fact that of 
all these responses, while many contain constructive criticisms and suggestions, only 
one contains a real "knock": and as for the good will expressed by them all it has 
served to give every member of the staff of editors a new inspiration for the future. 
The majority who offer constructive criticisms ask that as much as possible all 
articles be not too long and written in a style not above the head of the average. This 
is good advice, and hereby respectfully passed on to our contributors. 


It is a matter worthy of comment that a few of these brethren have written as if they 
were mere subscribers to a magazine and not members of a Society. This is their loss, 
because we are in strict truth a Society and have many things to give to our members 
in addition to THE BUILDER. A reader can learn what are all the prerogatives of 
membership by addressing an inquiry to headquarters. It is also worthy of comment 
that so many of these correspondents expressed approval of THE BUILDER for 
refusing to mix in controversies and for never publishing anything out of bitterness or 
ill will. Surely! what is Masonry for if it is not to teach men to subdue their passions, 
to live in the spirit of toleration, and to speak the truth with kindness! These letters 
also showed that THE BUILDER is being read by women of the household, and by 
many who are not in any way connected with the Fraternity. May the same continue! 

It should continue, and that not only with THE BUILDER but with all other Masonic 
periodicals and with the Fraternity as a whole, because men everywhere are in need of 
Masonry and of what it has to give to a world so sorely struggling. 



Because of all these developments those members of the Society who labor at 
headquarters are in a happy mood and cheerful at the beginning of 1923, and wish for 
every member of the National Masonic Research Society family a God speed! for the 
New Year. 


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AN INTERPRETATION OF THE PLUMB LINE 


BY BROTHER CHANNING GORDON LAWRENCE, NEW BRUNSWICK 


Here is a reading of the lesson of the plumb line that shows spiritual insight. Brother 
Lawrence is Grand Chaplain of New Brunswick; Worshipful Master of The 
Corinthians, No. 13; member of Royal Arch Chapter and of A. and A. S. R., etc. 


Thus he shewed me: and, behold, the Lord stood upon a wall made by a plumb line, 
with a plumb line in his hand. 


And the Lord said unto me, Amos, what seest thou? And I said, A plumb line. Then 
said the Lord, Behold, I will set a plumb line in the midst of my people Israel: I will 
not again pass by them any more. -Amos VII, 7-8. 


AMOS was one of the Prophets of Israel. We are accustomed to think of a prophet as 
one who predicts the course of events. Among the Hebrews the Prophet did 
occasionally predict, or foretell, the consequences that might be expected to follow 
upon evil living; or he foretold at times the help comfort that God would provide for 



His faithful people; but the characteristic function of the Prophet was not to foretell, 
but to tell forth. He told forth truths about God. The teaching of the prophet Amos 
has been preserved nearly three thousand years while myriads of other books have 
perished because it contains lessons that are of real worth and that are always of 
appropriate application. 


Nearly all successful teachers have taught by means of illustration. They have used 
signs and symbols that were selected to impress upon the mind wise and serious 
truths. Jesus of Nazareth, whose life and teaching have profoundly influenced the 
whole trend of civilization, illustrated his lessons by means of parables. The parable 
was a short story drawn from everyday life. To many of the hearers it was no doubt a 
well-told story and nothing more. But in every parable a principle of morality or a 
spiritual truth was exemplified. The story partly concealed the truth from unworthy or 
unfriendly hearers; and it partly revealed it to those who had ears to hear or, in other 
words, to those who desired light on heavenly things. 


The parable, as a means of illustration, was a development of later Hebrew thought. 
In the days of the Prophets teaching was frequently illustrated by means of the 
Vision. 


The vision differed from a parable in that it represented the lesson taught as having 
been revealed directly to the prophet by God Himself. Thus when the prophet was 
convinced of the truth of a sufficiently important lesson and was certain of its divine 
character, he introduced it with such words as, "I saw the Lord standing beside a 
wall," or "I heard the Lord saying unto me," and so forth. We cannot suppose that 
wherever in the ancient writings the Prophets use such language they have been 
permitted with natural eyes to look upon God, or that with mortal ears they heard in 
audible tones the voice of God: they used these expressions "I saw," and "I heard," to 
make their teaching impressive. 


But in this the prophets were in no sense guilty of deception or of misrepresentation. 
They told the truth just as you do when you often unconsciously follow their 
example. One day a peculiarly profound thought occurs to you, so unlike your usual 



trend of thought that it seems to have come to you from without; and you say, "I have 
had an inspiration." But what does that mean? Inspiration is literally a "breathing in." 
There has been breathed into your mind an idea, a thought, a suggestion from the 
great Spirit of Wisdom. You heard no audible voice but yet, it may be, God spoke to 
you as truly as He spoke to Amos or Ho sea or Isaiah; as He speaks every day to men 
who keep their minds in harmony with God. The wireless telegraph was perfected in 
our time but the principle of its operation has been in use between earth and heaven 
since the Creation. Messages have always been coming from God to men and we call 
it inspiration. And messages go back from man to God and we call it prayer. 


THE WALL 


So the vision of Amos contains a lesson of profound importance which the prophet 
wished to communicate in a striking and impressive way. Lirst we shall consider The 
Wall. 


You see its successive layers, each stone hewn, and shaped and placed by the hands 
of a builder, each separate stone and each layer of stones all cemented together with 
mortar applied with a trowel. Its angles are right angles, its layers are horizontal, its 
sides perpendicular. And how did it come to be so? These are evidences of a Mind 
wise enough to design and to measure and lay out work. And beside the Wisdom that 
designed, there has been Strength sufficient to divest those blocks of their superfluous 
parts and lift them to their proper position. And deeper still we perceive the Beauty 
of manly courage and godlike faith that dared to attempt such an enterprise and 
trusted in the laws of Nature that the effort would not be in Vain. 


In our speculative capacity let us thi nk of that wall as representing the result of 
human endeavour, something that man designs and attempts and finishes, something 
that he builds, in imitation of the Creator whose image he bears. While we might 
with profit consider our great fraternity, built up by our predecessors in the Craft so 
that now it is known and respected the world over, yet I prefer that we should at this 
time consider that wall as representing human character, mine or yours. 



For character is the result of human effort continued from day to day. That which you 
most desire in the depths of your inmost heart is the plan by which you govern your 
building. Set your affection on things which are base and dark and unworthy and 
your character becomes a wall of unlovely type. Set your affection on things above, 
on the unseen values of eternity, on truth and light and justice, and the built-up wall 
of your character will proceed along lines that please the eye of the Master. The 
stones which enter into that wall are acts and words and thoughts. As a wise and 
skilful builder rejects some of the stones that are brought to him as unfit to have a 
place in his building, so you ought often to reject many a thought that is suggested, to 
refrain from repeating much that is told you and to abstain from many deeds which by 
the thoughtless and profane, are performed to our knowledge every day. 


A wall of masonry is not just a chance accumulation of stones and mortar. It is a 
studied and carefully planned arrangement executed with attention to every detail. 
And just so, good character in man is not a wild and natural growth but is only 
developed under careful discipline, The standard of righteousness is as unvarying as 
the Plumb, Virtue is as exact as the angle of the Square, and our determination to be 
and true must be as continuous and unbroken as the level line which stretches far 
beyond the bounds space into the realms of eternity. Let no one suppose that it does 
not matter what he thinks, or how speaks, or what he does, for thoughts, words, and 
deeds are the building material of his character. 


THE OVERSEER 


So much for the wall. We note next that it was being inspected. "Behold the Lord 
standing beside a wall." Amos reminds us that He who made the worlds is interested 
in the work of His creatures. He comes having authority to examine and inspect the 
work which we present. Those of you who did military service in the memorable 
days of the Great War, remember how novel a thing to us the inspections of the army 
were. We were inspected in every conceivable way, our bearing and deportment, our 
dress, our sleeping apartments, our bodies, our food, and our correspondence. There 
seemed to be nothing that the army did not in some way look into. And he was a dull 
soldier who did not at least dimly guess that somewhere, not far away, is One who 
similarly looks into and sees the thoughts and intents of the heart. 



The Lord stands beside every wall and though our thoughts, words and actions may 
be hidden from the eyes of man yet that All-seeing Eye whom the sun, moon and 
stars obey, pervades the inmost recesses of the human heart. "The fear of the Lord is 
the beginning of wisdom." He who allows himself to think lightly of God, who 
neglects to pay to T.G.A.O.T. the reverence and the adoration due to His Holy Name, 
is lacking in that wisdom which is needed to plan direct any truly great work. Look 
up, my brothers, into the starry sky, the canopy of heaven, and behold the myriads of 
planets all in motion and yet moving as they have for untold ages without collision or 
confusion. Study the order and the beauty apparent there. Think of the wisdom 
which carefully planned all their nice exactness. Think you that such a Master will be 
satisfied with careless, sloth or indifferent service? 


His work as revealed in Nature alone necessitated an awful knowledge of the intricate 
relations of curved lines intersecting, of the laws of moving bodies, of the principles 
of ornamentation and of many a science and art that we may not even imagine. But 
our simple building is a matter of the relation of only two straight lines, one 
perpendicular and one horizontal: Yet it is a building that He will look into. Take 
heed that we build aright! 


THE PLUMB LINE 


There remains for our consideration the instrument by which the test was made. 
"Behold, the stood upon a wall made by a plumb line, with a plumb line in his hand." 


From any given point an incalculable number straight lines may be drawn in any 
number of planes. They may extend east or west or north or south, or up or down, or 
they may lean in a thousand variations of each of these several directions: an 
immeasurable number of lines from that one point and every one of them is straight. 
But only one out of the thousands can be plumb! A great many are nearly plumb, but 
one, and only one, is strictly so. According to that one upright straight line will our 
work be tried. 



When a wall gets out of the plumb it leans either out or in. And when it leans seams 
begin to show on the opposite side. And the seam is the visible sign to all who pass 
by that the wall is not so well built as it might have been. It may be still a very useful 
wall affording support, or shelter, or defense, but because it is not plumb it is not so 
good as it might have been. For a wall ought to stand according to the plumb. And 
the wall that leans ever so little is a reproach to the builder who ought to have kept it 
plumb. 


In the wall of our character we are inclined to lean out or in. Inward in the way of 
selfishness, personal interest, love of gain and pride. Think too much of self and your 
wall begins to lean and the seams open on the outer side. And the tendency to please 
the world, rather than to please God, will draw your character away from the plumb in 
the other direction. One does not like to displease his neighbour and to avoid doing 
so he leans away from uprightness. Or he finds it trying and unpleasant to tell the 
truth when a little concession to popular fancy will bring popularity; a little flattery or 
praise. But lean ever so little and the seams come and grow. And men say that "So- 
and-so would be upright but for this or that; he is of perfect character only for this one 
flaw," - and so forth. And alas, you have not built Plumb. 


A hard, hard thing it is to keep to that unerring line. We cast our eye down its length 
to see how often our work has varied from the plumb, and with much humility and 
many tears we look up to the Great Master and we trust that He, in His wisdom, 
knows that we desire to please Him. We can say truly that above all other lines we 
desire and prefer the plumb. 


May God forgive me if I am wrong in this, but 1 believe that although our work shows 
many flaws, our walls far from perfect and the seams show on every side, yet the 
Great Master will know that we have tried to build aright. And may it not be that in 
another world with choicer stone to quarry and finer tools to work with and brighter 
Light to lead us, may not the Apprentice of this life be advanced to a higher degree of 
service? 



There have been times in the history of philosophy as in the history of religion, when 
men have gone to an extreme in emphasizing the seriousness of life. But few, if any, 
are guilty of that fault today. We are rather in the way of becoming a materialistic 
and superficial people. Our grandfathers read through tremendous volumes of 
Shakespeare and Thackeray and Macaulay with interest and profit. We tire ourselves 
with the short stories of the magazine. They patronized and enjoyed the three-hour 
plays and operas of real worth. We troop in thousands afternoon and evening to the 
pictures and are content. We hustle frantically and nervously through the day in 
machines of the highest gear, along roads that are built for speed, leaving ourselves so 
little leisure for study or reflection that there is danger of "the attentive ear" and "the 
instructive tongue" becoming only figurative expressions and memories of the past. 
But as builders who serve a heavenly Master, we must not allow ourselves to be 
seduced by the ease-loving spirit of the age. There rests upon every Freemason a great 
responsibility. We, in our generation, guard certain great traditions of the past: we 
hold in trust sacred mysteries that we must pass on unchanged to those who are yet to 
come. And to keep ourselves worthy of this honourable duty we must adhere to the 
plumb in our several stations before God and man. 


Above all things in our truly Masonic work we must avoid haste and carelessness, 
and in all our ceremonies and operations prepare ourselves thoroughly, proceed 
regularly, and continue persistently while the Light lasts, carrying out each detail with 
precision and giving to each the dignity and honour due to it as part of the plan of a 
Great Architect. 


— o — 


ST. LOUIS LODGE TRAVELS TO ALEXANDRIA, VA., TO CONFER 
MASTER'S DEGREE 


In the presence of a throng of Masons, who filled the lodge room of Alexandria- 
Washington Lodge, No. 22, of Alexandria, Va., the Worshipful Master and officers of 
George Washington Lodge, No. 9, of St. Louis, conferred the Master Mason's degree 
upon a member of their lodge. Thirty members of George Washington Lodge came to 



Alexandria for the purpose, and were the guests of the Alexandrians for a day, after 
which they returned home. 


The world needs sentiment. Living as we do a life of hard, practical reality, with the 
daily chase for the daily meal the outstanding need of us all, we need those 
institutions which cherish and preserve sentiment. 


And here is sentiment at its purest and best. When thirty men take a long journey for 
the sake of a revered name; when a lodge in St. Louis will travel to Alexandria, 
because the name of their lodge is George Washington, and George Washington the 
man was Master of Washington- Alexandria Lodge, they have moved, spiritually, a far 
greater distance, than actually, in the flesh. It is a fair example of the power of the 
Masonic Order over men's hearts; it is because Masonry has kept alive the sentiment 
and the beauty of an idea, rather than of a practical reality, that it has lived and grown 
and thrived. 


The Masonic Order is not eleemosynary in character, though it practices charity; it is 
no mutual benefit organization, although it is mutually beneficial to its members; it is 
not a life assurance organization; it offers little if any material, practical assets to its 
membership. That it is of the greatest use to its members, and a high influence for 
good in all communities where Freemasons are (a fact which can not well be 
disputed), comes from its hold upon the hearts and minds of men; as in this instance 
of its power to make men take a long journey, in reverence and love for the traditions 
which cluster about the First President of the Union. - Capital News Service. 


— o — 


On you, who Masonry despise, 
This counsel I bestow; 

Don't ridicule, if you are wise, 



A secret you don't know; 

Yourselves you banter, but not it; 

You show your spleen but not your wit. 


— o — 


BROTHER SIR CHARLES WARREN, P.G.D. 

PAST DISTRICT GRAND MASTER, EASTERN ARCHIPELAGO 


BY BRO. DUDLEY WRIGHT, ENGLAND 


This paper eras written for THE BUILDER at our own request, in order that our 
readers might be made acquainted with one of the most illustrious names in modem 
Freemasonry. Bro. Warren's career, along with his unabated zeal for the Craft, 
furnishes us with one of the secrets of the great power of Freemasonry m Britain, 
where it is rightly considered an enterprise entitled to the guidance and support of the 
greatest in the realm. 


BROTHER Sir Charles Warren, F.R.S., the first Master of the Quatuor Coronati 
Lodge, No. 2076, was bom at Bangor, Wales, on 7th February, 1840, the son of 
Major-General Sir Charles Warren; and was educated at Bridgnorth, Cheltenham 
College, Sandhurst, and Woolwich. He entered the Royal Engineers as a Lieutenant 
when he was seventeen years of age, being gazetted as a Captain in 1869. He 
conducted the explorations in Palestine from 1867 to 1870, and in Our Work in 
Palestine, published in 1875, by the Palestine Exploration Society, the following 
tribute is paid to him: 



"Let us finally bear witness to the untiring perseverance, courage, and ability of 
Captain Warren. Those of us who know best the nature of the difficulties he had to 
work against can tell with what courage and patience they were met and overcome. 
Physical suffering and long endurance of heat, cold, and danger were as nothing. So 
long as the interest in the history of modern Jerusalem remains, so long as people are 
concerned to know how sacred sites have been found out, so long will the name of 
Captain Warren survive." 


Captain Warren had more or less a free hand for his important work in the Holy Land, 
his instructions being merely to keep as nearly as possible to the sacred area of the 
temple, outside, but not within, where he was permitted by a vizierial letter, to dig. 
Among other discoveries which he made was that of the underground passage 
connecting the palace at Jerusalem with the Haram area, while he also made 
explorations in the Tyropean valley among the remains of Solomon's bridge, by 
which the monarch crossed the valley from his palace on Zion to the temple on 
Moriah. In 1876 Brother Warren published his work on Underground Jerusalem, 
followed four years later by The Temple or The Tomb, and, in 1884, in conjunction 
with Captain Conder, he published Jerusalem. 


In 1876, Brother Warren was appointed Special Commissioner to settle the boundary 
line of the Orange Free State and, in 1877, to perform the like service with regard to 
Griqualand West, for which he was thanked by the Government for his services and 
awarded the C.M.C. The following year, 1878, saw him engaged in the Griqua-Kaffir 
war, when he was wounded, awarded a medal, thanked by the Imperial Government 
and the Provincial Legislature, and made a Major and Lieutenant-General. He was in 
charge of the Diamond Field Force and afterwards of the Field Force in 
Bechuanaland. During the Zulu War he organized a volunteer force for the assistance 
of the Transvaal and Natal, acting in the capacity of Commander-in-Chief, becoming, 
in 1879, Administrator of Griqualand West. In 1880, he returned to England, and, in 
1881, was appointed Instructor of Surveying at Chatham. In 1882 he returned to 
Egypt, when he served under Arabi, and was engaged in the special duty of restoring 
in the desert the authority of the Khedive, and in bringing to justice the murderers of 
Professor Palmer and his companions, whose bodies he recovered in 1882. For this 
purpose he entered the Arabian deserts without escort, accompanied by Lieutenants 
Burton and Haynes. In the same year he was appointed to a Colonelcy, being also 
awarded a medal and Medjidie third class. In 1883 he was made K.C.M.G., and, in 
1884, he again proceeded to South Africa in command of the Bechuanaland 



expedition, and, for his services there, he was, in the following year, created 
G.C.M.G. On his return, in 1886, he was placed in command of the forces at Suakim, 
but was recalled in the same year to reorganize the London police force as Chief 
Commissioner, from which position he retired in 1888, being awarded the K. C. B. 
for his services. From 1889 to 1894 he commanded the troops in the Straits 
Settlements and, from 1895 to 1898, he was in command of the troops in the Thames 
district. His last appointment was in 1899 and 1900, when he was Lieutenant-General 
in command of the South African Field Force, when he was mentioned in despatches. 


Brother Sir Charles Warren was initiated into Freemasonry in the Royal Lodge of 
Friendship, No. 278, Gibraltar, and was already a Past Master and Past First Principal 
of a Royal Arch Chapter when he undertook the Palestine Exploration. He was also a 
Past Master of the Charles Warren Lodge, No. 1832, Kimberley, South Africa, but he 
is best known to English speaking Freemasons as the first Master of the Quatuor 
Coronati Lodge, No. 2076. The warrant for this lodge was granted on 28th November, 
1884, but after the application for the charter had been sent in, Brother Warren 
received his command to repair to Bechuanaland. He asked his cofounders to make 
another selection from among their number, but they did him the signal honor of 
preferring to await his return to England, with the result that the lodge was not 
consecrated until 12th January, 1886. He was appointed to the rank of Past Grand 
Deacon of England in 1887 and from 1891 to 1894 he was District Grand Master of 
the Eastern Archipelago. 


— o — 


FREEMASONRY IN CHILE 


BY BROTHER GEORGE LANZAROTTI, CHILE 


Here is an article of greater interest than most. Would we had more like it! Aside 
from the contribution it makes to our knowledge of Freemasonry in South America it 
is a reminder, gentle but firm, of the fact that one should carefully consider the source 



of whatever he reads about Freemasonry in Central and South America. Brother 
Lanzarotti will be very glad to communicate with any Mason desiring further light on 
the subject. Address him care THE BUILDER. 


MANY American Masons I have met have such mistaken ideas concerning 
Freemasonry in Chile that I have been moved to write these lines to correct, if 
possible, these wrong impressions. 


Among some American brethren the opinion is prevalent that the Grand Lodge of 
Chile is based on the same principles as that of the Grand Orient of France. This 
statement has some foundation due to the fact that up to the year 1852 the native 
lodges existing in this country were under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of 
Bordeaux; but since 1852, when the Grand Lodge of Chile was established, we have 
had no other connection with French Masonry than of being on friendly relations, the 
same as maintained with all the duly recognized Masonic powers of the world. 


These brethren also believe that we have removed the Holy Bible from our altar, and 
that our organization is composed mostly, if not wholly, of atheists. This is far from 
the truth. We maintain the Holy Bible on the altar, and every candidate has to accept 
the principle of the S.G.A.O.T.U. before being accepted as a brother. There are many 
protestant pastors among the members of the Chilean lodges who no doubt would 
have retired if they had found in our meetings or rituals any inclination towards 
atheism. All the sessions in our lodges are opened and closed to the Glory of the 
S.G.A.O.T.U. 


Another charge against our Institution is that it is believed to mix in politics; to this 
charge I will reply that our Constitution strictly prohibits our Fraternity from dealing 
in either political or religious matters! but as the majority of the Chilean Masons are 
also Chilean citizens, it is not to be wondered at that they will back up, as good 
citizens, the political parties that are more in harmony with their Masonic ideals. 



To realize what has been performed by the Masons here, towards the uplift of the 
moral and physical condition of the Chilean people, it would be necessary to analyze 
the last six decades of the history of this country: one would then discover that the 
promoters of many enterprises that had the welfare of the nation in view were 
members of the Fraternity. 


Regarding the spirit which prevails among the members, let me give you the 
following case. There is a lodge located in an isolated village; all its members are 
scattered around the country; the lodge meets twice a month; some of the members 
live as far as forty miles away from the Temple and have no other means to reach it 
than on horseback! and yet the attendance is never below eighty-five per cent of its 
total membership! 


The Grand Lodge of Chile has jurisdiction over fifty-eight lodges; fifty- five of these 
are in Chilean territory and the other three on Bolivian soil. There are also ten 
Triangles, or Lodges of Instruction, which are expected to become duly constituted 
lodges within a short time. The principal work carried on by these bodies is the 
promoting of universal education, and although the obstacles to overcome are great, 
due to superstition and fanaticism on the part of the bulk of the people, this work is 
steadily carried forward, and the first ode of the Hymn of Victory will not be sung 
until illiteracy has disappeared in this young republic. 


So I pray you not to be the echo of our eternal enemy, but please believe that the 
Fraternity at this end of the world is doing its best and as much, if not more, than in 
some other countries. 


— o — 


Hail, Masonry! to thee we raise 
The song of triumph, and of praise. 



The Sun which shines supreme on high, 
The Stars that glisten in the sky, 

The Moon that yields her silver light, 

And vivifies the lonely night, 

Must by the course of Nature fade away, 
And all the Earth alike in time decay; 

But while they last shall Masonry endure, 
Built on such Pillars solid and secure; 
And at the last triumphantly shall rise 
In Brotherly affection to the skies. 


— o — 


THE TRESTLE BOARD 


BY BROTHER H.L. HAYWOOD, IOWA 


IN THE French town of Caudebec, which stands on the Seine River, is the grave of 
one "Guillaume Letellier, master mason of the church, who had the conduct of the 
works for thirty years and more, and erected the choir and chapels." On the grave 
stone of this long forgotten Masonic brother who was once a master builder is an 
inscribed drawing the plan of a building. It was the custom of builder in those days to 
have their tools engraved on their grave stones, just as knights and lords made use 
their heraldic devices. Brother Letellier chose to be remembered as one who made 



designs for buildings and therefore selected a building plan for his own during 
remembrances. 


We do not need to be told how important in the work of Operative Masons was the 
making of a plan for a building. "What has the Master on his trestle board?" was a 
question often asked with keenest interest by the workman. And because of this 
importance the trestle board, which represented the whole labour of making plans, 
came to be used as a symbol, just as we found Brother Letellier using it as a symbol 
his own life's work. When Masons ceased to be Operative Masons, and turned their 
attention to the building of men in fraternal life, they retained the trestle board as a 
symbol. 


The trestle board in Speculative Masonry is a symbol of that which we call an ideal. 
One should not be frightened by the use of this word. It does not refer to something 
visionary, or far away, or, as our slang expression has it, "highbrow." Quite the 
contrary! 


Before we go on a journey we plan our travels, our railway connections, our stop- 
overs, and our destination. Before we undertake to erect a building we are so careful 
to have a plan that often we pay an expert to make one for us. It would be equally 
wise if each of us were to have a plan similarly for his own life. A plan for one's life 
is what we mean by an ideal. It is a plan for doing things. 


Also, an ideal is a plan for improving actual conditions. If our lodge room were too 
small, or is badly ventilated, or inadequately lighted, or the members quarrel among 
themselves we might feel very unhappy because of such conditions: and some of us 
might put our heads together in an effort to better conditions. We would say, "Let us 
do this, and that, and the other thing, so that we can be happier in our lodge work." 
Such a plan for bettering unsatisfactory conditions would be an ideal. It is something 
that we would draw, to speak figuratively, on the trestle board of our lodge. Such an 
effort to better actual conditions would not be "high brow"; on the contrary it would 
recommend itself to men of sense and sagacity. 



We Masons believe that condition could be improved in our human world. We are too 
busy to dream impossible dreams about mankind: we are too practical to wish to 
waste time and energy on unattainable aims. We do not try the fantastical. But we 
know there are some things to be improved by plain common sense efforts, and we 
are leagued together and solemnly sworn to assist in such endeavors. This program 
for improving conditions among men is what we mean by the Masonic ideal; it is 
what the Fraternity has drawn upon its trestle board. 


For instance, we Masons believe that much of the unhappiness in the world is due to 
ignorance, and we believe that if all men were well educated they would be happier 
than they are. We Masons, therefore, wish to do all we can to uphold and improve 
the whole public school system, and to try to make it possible for all the children of 
all the people to have all the enlightenment that is possible under the circumstances. 
Brethren, let us each one as individual Masons put that down on our own private 
trestle board. 


Another example. Those of us who are acquainted with any community know that 
men and women very seldomly live as happily with each other as well as might be. 

We are all bound up together. We are compelled to live in neighbourhoods. We must 
live together whether we choose it or not. Is it not wise, then, for us to learn how to 
live happily together? The effort to bring men and women into harmony with each 
other is the great aim of Brotherhood, and this practical, common sense, hard-headed 
effort to organize human neighbourhoods into human happiness, that is one of the 
great purposes of our Fraternity. It is on our trestle board. 


A final example. Nations, like individuals and families, are also compelled to live 
together: there is no escape from that! But unfortunately, nations have not as yet 
learned how to live happily together. Ever so often they go to war, and then men and 
women suffer the most terrible unhappiness known to our race. How can we 
eliminate war and do away with national antagonisms is a difficult problem; the ways 
and means cannot be discussed here. But we men, we Masons, know that it can be 
done, and we are dedicated to the effort to do it. How to bring nations to live happily 
together, that also is on our trestle board. 



None of these things are impossible dreams. The more experience and wisdom and 
common sense a man has, the more hard-headed he is, the more will he wish these 
things to be. They, and the other plans we have for improving conditions, will give 
us more prosperity, more money, more health, and more happiness. It is to such an 
ideal that Masonry is dedicated. Brethren, let us ourselves become dedicated also. 

Let us make such an ideal the symbol of our lives, just as did the good Master Mason, 
Brother Letellier, long ago! 


— o — 


WAS DR. JOHNSON A FREEMASON? 
SOME PHASES OF HIS LIFE 


BY BROTHER ARTHUR HEIRON, ENGLAND 


Dr. Samuel Johnson, the most picturesque figure in the history of English literature, 
and the hero of the world's greatest, biography, found the craft of writing English 
prose in the gutter, a profession for scamps like rag picking, and by his own character 
and ability lifted it to the dignity and power of a national art. His writings may sound 
pompous and unreal to us now but in their own day were a marvel and they wrought 
miracles in English, so that after these two hundred years one cannot move near him 
without coming under his spell. His place in history is ample warrant for the 
exhaustive and patient thoroughness with which Brother Heiron has undertaken to 
ascertain if he could have been a member of the Fraternity. As one reads this 
remarkable essay he finds Dr. Johnson growing very real and very human. 


At the same time, and as a matter of even greater interest to the readers of these 
pages, Brother Reiron's study brings out into vivid colour a picture of the Craft as it 
was in the London of the early eighteenth century, at which period Speculative 
Freemasonry was as yet in its swaddling clothes. Brother Heiron is the author of 



"Ancient Freemasonry, and Old Dundee Lodge. 18 - 1722 - 1920," a review of which 
was contributed by ye editor to page 243 of THE BUILDER for Sep. 1921. 


THE ABOVE query has often exercised the minds of thoughtful students, for there 
are so many ponderous phrases and involved sentences in our ritual more especially 
in the Masonic lectures) that bear the impress of the Johnsonian School, that even 
though we may not be able definitely to decide this question, it does seem fairly 
certain that at some time or other - Dr. Johnson (1709-1784) was a member of the 
Craft, it being quite clear now that several of his most intimate friends and associates 
were themselves Freemasons. 


Although on various occasions brethren in England and the United States have 
asserted that he was a Craftsman, yet up to know no lodge has definitely claimed him 
as a member, but the records of the "Old Dundee" Lodge, No. 18 (English 
Constitutions) - which was No. 9 in 1755 and therefore one of the oldest lodges in the 
world, Constituted 1722-23 - prove that in 1767, a candidate named "Samuel 
Johnson" was "Made a Mason" and afterwards "Raised a Master" in their lodge room 
situate on the first floor of a building in Red Lion Street, Wapping, London, E., the 
freehold of which our ancient brethren had purchased in 1763. 


Now, as it was not customary until 1784 for the addresses or descriptions of 
candidates to be written in the minute books or other records of the lodge, there is no 
certain proof at present as to who this man was, but the circumstances surrounding 
Dr. Johnson's life and habits at this period of 1767 are so strange and complex that 
many brethren believe the identity of this candidate with the author of the "Dictionary 
of the English language" to admit of but little doubt, and unless and until a 
satisfactory and complete "alibi" can be proved to the contrary, the evidence seems in 
favour of this suggestion. 


The full story is told in detail in Chapter XIV of a History of Freemasonry in the 18th 
Century, published by Kenning & Son, London, in 1921 entitled "Ancient 



Freemasonry, and the Old Dundee Lodge No. 18 - 1722 - 1920" to which further 
reference may be made. 


In order to appreciate this story one must try and understand the real man himself; it 
will therefore now be necessary to recall to memory various incidents in the life of 
Dr. Johnson that make manifest his bohemian disposition and the lighter side of his 
life that are not often investigated or discussed, for when he is quoted in these present 
days the motive seems chiefly an attempt to impress the reader with some witty or 
apposite saying of the learned sage. 


But there is obviously another side of his character and disposition that deserves 
attention and this phase is very apparent in the Story of his life written by his devoted 
friend - one night almost say "slave" - , to wit, "James Boswell." 


It will also be very essential to refer to his "constitutional melancholy" which Johnson 
said was the "curse of his life" and accounts for much of the irregular conduct so 
often alluded to by his biographer. 


A Freemason of considerable repute and standing stated recently that he could not 
believe that a mam of Dr. Johnson's steady character and deep religious principles 
would have so lowered himself as to frequent a rough neighbourhood as Wapping 
undoubtedly was in 1767; he admitted however that he had not studied the details of 
Johnson's life and that his knowledge was merely confined to his literary work. To 
contradict this erroneous view this article has been written, in order partly to 
demonstrate that one who was so humorous and full of fun, so fond of club life, such 
a frequenter of taverns as Johnson was, is singled out just the type of man who could 
have loved to join a Freemasons' lodge, for in those far-off days a lodge much 
resembled a social Masonic club. 


The full responsibility for the discussion of this subject however really rests with Dr. 
Johnson himself, for if he had not told the world in 1783 (through Boswell) that 
Johnson - was intimately acquainted with Wapping (then the Port of London) this 



story would never have seen the light of day; it certainly would not have originated 
from the musings of an innocent and unknown writer. 


It is desired however at the outset most emphatically to state that in reproducing some 
of these episodes in Johnson's life, there is not the slightest desire to say anything that 
might wound the feelings of those who hold his memory in reverence nor any 
intention to derogate from the high position he holds in the general estimation as a 
teacher of moral truth and virtue. Great allowance has also to be made for the 
atmosphere in which Dr. Johnson lived: it was a coarse and rough age indeed and 
things happened then that would seem incredible in the London of 1922. 


BOSWELL'S DIFFIDENCE 


Boswell at one time felt doubtful as to publishing all he knew, and in 1768 he actually 
asked Johnson if he objected to his letters being published after his death. His answer 
was, "Nay, Sir, when I am dead, do as you will." Boswell further says: "When I 
delineate him without reserve, I do what he (Johnson) himself recommended both by 
his precept and example." Dr. Johnson himself said in 1777: "If a man professes to 
write a life, he must represent it really as it was"; and further, "that a man's intimate 
friend should mention his faults, if he writes his life." 


Boswell in dedicating his immortal work to Sir Joshua Reynolds says in 1791: "I have 
therefore in this Work been more reserved, and though I tell nothing but the truth, I 
have still kept in my mind that the whole truth is not always to be exposed": and 
lastly on this point "Bozzy" wrote: "I will not make my tiger a cat to please anybody." 


And now for the information of those who have had no opportunity to study the 
career of Johnson, a short sketch of his early history is now given; this may save 
some effort to the reader, for Boswell's "Life of Johnson" is a lengthy work, the 
popular edition two volumes containing nearly 1,300 pages of small print. 



A FEW DETAILS OF JOHNSON'S PRIVATE LIFE 


Samuel Johnson was born at Lichfield in Staffordshire in 1709, his father, Michael 
Johnson, being bookseller in that city. 


Now Samuel possessed robust body and active mind but unfortunately also inherited 
a tendency to scrofula, which affected his eye sight, and still worse "a melancholy" 
which had much to do with his physical mental and sufferings so often referred to by 
Boswell; we are also told that when an infant only about two years old, he was taken 
to London and "touched by Queen Anne for the evil"; it is said that this was perhaps 
the last instance of the exercise of such Royal condescension. 


His early education was received at two grammar schools; then in his nineteenth year 
he entered Pembroke College, Oxford, but after a residence of about three years left 
the University without taking a degree. His father dying in very poor circumstances 
in 1731, Johnson remarked, "I must now make my own fortune," and then 
commenced a hard struggle for existence. 


HIS MARRIAGE 


In 1735 (when only twenty-six years old) he married Mrs. Elizabeth Porter, the 
widow of a Birmingham mercer: she was nearly forty-seven (twenty years older than 
Johnson) but as he was almost penniless and she brought him a dowry of 800 pounds, 
this may perhaps have influenced his mind, for his lifelong friend, David Garrick, 
described this good lady as "very fat with a bosom of more than ordinary 
protuberance with swelled cheeks of a florid red, produced by thick painting and 
increased by the liberal use of cordials - flaming and fantastic in her dress and 
affected both her speech and general behaviour." There were no children bom of this 
ill-assorted marriage but on the whole the quaint pair seemed to have been fairly 
happy for when she died in 1752, Johnson was much distress and on the anniversaries 
of her death it was his custom to remember her in prayer. 



HIS SCHOOL 


With the assistance of his wife's dowry he started a small school, for in the 
"Gentleman's Magazine" for 1736 there appeared the following advertisement: "At 
Edial, near Lichfield in Staffordshire, young gentlemen are boarded and taught the 
Latin and Greek languages by Samuel Johnson." 


According to Boswell, he only had about three pupils, the chief one being the 
celebrated "David Garrick" (1716-1779). His scholars were not very dutiful, for we 
are told "the young rogues used to listen at the door of his bedchamber and peep 
through the keyhole that they might turn into ridicule his tumultuous and awkward 
fondness for Mrs. Johnson," whom he used to call "Tetty" a pet name for Elizabeth. 


The school soon proved a failure and in 1737 Johnson (aged twenty-eight) started out 
for London accompanied by his pupil, David Garrick, both impecunious, each to try 
his fortune in the great metropolis. Garrick became the world famed actor, whilst 
Samuel Johnson raised himself by industry and ability to the foremost rank of authors 
and, thanks to Boswell, (wherever the English language is spoken) his name will now 
never die. Later in life Johnson referred to their mutual poverty at this period with 
these words: "when I came to London (in 1737) with two pence half-penny in my 
pocket, and thou, Davy, with three-half pence in thine." The above was virtually the 
only serious love affair in Johnson's life. Left a widower in 1752 (when only forty- 
three years old) he never essayed matrimony again but seemed content to live the 
solitary life of a single man, so that when our story from Wapping commences in 
1767 he had been a widower for fifteen years. Johnson's views as regards the 
advantages or the reverse of married life were rather mixed; once he said of another: 
"He has done a very foolish thing, Sir, he has married a widow, when he might have 
had a maid"; and yet, he had married a widow himself! Boswell tells us that, "A 
gentleman who had been very unhappy in marriage, married immediately after his 
wife died. Johnson remarked 'it was the triumph of hope over experience!"' 



JOHNSON AND SAVAGE 


Johnson (aged twenty-nine) now commences life in London but unfortunately before 
long became friendly with one "Richard Savage," a dissipated and profligate man, 
well acquainted with the lower life of London, and who doubtless introduced Johnson 
to the frivolities of Wapping. They were both poor and Boswell says, "they (Savage 
and Johnson) were sometimes in such extreme indigence that they could not pay for a 
lodging, so that they have wandered together whole nights in the streets." 


The following dates are here given:- 
1709. Samuel Johnson born at Lichfield. 

1755. "Dictionary of the English Language," by Samuel Johnson, A. M. (now first 
published). 

1756. Johnson arrested for debt. 

1762. An annual pension of 300 pounds granted to Johnson by the Tory Government 
under Lord Bute. 

1763. Boswell (aged 23) first introduced to Johnson (aged 54), a forerunner of about 
270 subsequent meetings. 

1784. Dr. Johnsons death and burial in Westminster Abbey. 

1791. Boswell's "Life of Johnson" published. 


We now come to the story that hails from Wapping. 


Extracts from Boswell's "Life of Johnson." 
Dr. Johnson's Advice to Boswell (1783). 



EXPLORE WAPPING 


1783, April 12. Saturday. "I (James Boswell) visited him in company with Mr. 
Windham of Norfolk. He (Dr. Johnson) talked today a good deal of the wonderful 
extent and variety of London, and observed that men of curious inquiry might see in it 
such modes of life as very few could even imagine. He in particular recommended us 
to 'Explore Wapping,' which we resolved to do, and certainly shall." 


BOSWELL AND WINDHAM VISIT WAPPING (1792) 


Note. The first edition of Boswell was published in 1791 and contains the above last 
three words "and certainly shall," but in the second edition of 1793 these three words 
are omitted, and instead we have the following addendum, viz: 


A footnote by Boswell states: "We accordingly carried our Scheme into execution in 
October 1792, but whether from that uniformity which has in modem times to a great 
degree spread throughout every part of the Metropolis or from our want of sufficient 
exertion we were disappointed." 


Note the astonishment of Boswell. Evidently the learned Doctor had never before in 
their previous conversations referred to Wapping; it was clearly some private 
experience that Johnson had carefully kept to himself and now leaked out by accident 
for the first time. (It is obvious that he did not tell all his secrets to Boswell, thirty-one 
years his junior. Why should he?) Now Johnson died the next year (1784) but 
Boswell was so much impressed that he could not forget those words, and so in 1792 
(nine years after this strange advise and eight years after Dr. Johnson's death) 
determined to investigate the matter for himself. He therefore made a special journey 
to Wapping with his friend Windham - doubtless in the day time - but without 
success. 



Now at this period Wapping, situate not far below London Bridge, was the Port of 
London, many sailing vessels of from two to four hundred tons burthen laying at 
anchor there in the "Pool" in the River Thames. There were also about forty taverns 
in the neighbourhood ready to supply refreshment and amusements (dancing, bear- 
baiting, dog fights, cock-fighting, female pugilists, etc., etc.) for the large number of 
British and foreign sailors who were often detained in the Port for several weeks 
waiting for a return cargo to distant shores. It is however more than probable that if 
Boswell had penetrated at night - in charge of a suitable guide - into the purlieus of 
the place, he would have fully realized what Dr. Johnson referred to when he advised 
his two friends to "Explore Wapping" and also said, "that men of curious inquiry 
might see in it (Wapping) such modes of life as very few could even imagine." In 
more modem days Ratcliffe Highway, which adjoined Wapping, also had a very 
dangerous and unsavoury reputation. 


[Note. The "Windham" above referred to was the Rt. Hon. William Windham, 
D.C.L. (1750-1810.) He was a distinguished statesman and scholar and in 1782 was 
elected M.P. for Norwich; and in 1794 under Mr. Pitt was appointed Secretary at 
War. He was an intimate and valued friend of Dr. Johnson, and was in close 
attendance on him during his last illness in 1784. 


Boswell tells us: "Mr. Windham having placed a pillow conveniently to support him, 
he (Johnson) thanked him for his kindness and said, 'That will do, - all that a pillow 
can do.'" Windham was also present at the funeral of Dr. Johnson in Westminster 
Abbey, acting as one of the pallbearers. 


This same James Boswell, who thus accompanied Windham on their visit of 
exploration to Wapping in 1792, was a Mason of high degree, having attained the 
rank of Deputy Grand Master of Scotland in 1776 and 1777.] 


A "SAML. JOHNSON" MADE IN 1767 - EXTRACTS FROM MINUTE BOOKS 
OF "OLD DUNDEE" 



1767, May 14. "Lodge Night. Bro. Dormer proposed Mr. Samuel Johnson ... to be 
made a Mason in this Lodge next Lodge Night, 2nd. and deposited 10s. 6d. [Brother 
Dormer was an old Past Master, I. 1746, and a pipemaker.] 


May 28. "Lodge Night. Mr. Samuel Johnson was Accepted." 


June 11. "Lodge Night. Agreeable to the proposal of Bro. Dormer, Mr. Sami. 
Johnson was Made a Mason for which Honour he paid Two pounds two." "Likewise 
Bro. Dormer proposed Bro. Johnson to be Raised a Master Mason next Lodge Night, 
2nd. and Deposited 2s. 6d" 


July 9. "Lodge Night. Agreeable to proposal of last Lodge Night, Bro. Johnson was 
Raised a Master, for which Honour he paid Five Shillings." [Note. Mr. Sami. Johnson 
is now a Master Mason and a member of the "Dundee Lodge," No. 9 (now No. 18) 
meeting at their own freehold in Red Lion Street, Wapping: it was not customary in 
1767 for the addresses or description of candidates to be inserted in the lodge's books, 
and it is very doubtful if they were even mentioned in open lodge, the 
recommendation of an old Past Master being quite sufficient. If the candidate was 
respectable they were glad to have him, the extra fees meant that the supply of liquid 
refreshment would be increased, a dominant factor in those days.] 


BRO. SAML. JOHNSON ATTENDED TWENTY-ONE TIMES 


According to the Secretary's entries in the minute book, Bro. Samuel Johnson 
(whoever he was) made twenty-one attendances at the "Dundee Lodge" at Wapping, 
and was a member for three-and-a-half years; he paid his "Dues" and then ceased his 
membership Christmas 1770. 



His twenty-one recorded visits were on the following dates, viz: 


1767. June 11, June 25, July 9, December 2 (Feast Day). 


1768. June 23, July 14, August 11, August 25 October 27, December 8, December 22. 


1769. January 26, February 10, March 23, April 13, April 17, April 27, May 11. 


1770. September 13, November 8, December 13. 


These twenty-one dates have been careful checked as far as possible with the 
recorded movements of Dr. Johnson, and it seems clear to the writer that he could 
have been present at Wapping on the days referred to if it had been his desire so to 
do. On various occasions in 1768 and 1769 when Dr. Johnson was undoubtedly at 
Oxford or at Brightelmstone (Brighton) his presence at Wapping is not recorded in 
the lodge books; this may only be negative evidence but rather leads one to think that 
our member, "Samuel Johnson," was really identical with the learned Doctor himself. 
Of all this more anon. 


(To be continued) 


— o — 


GOVERNMENT TO ASSIST IN SHRINE MEET IN JUNE 



Washington, D.C. - The Imperial Council Session of the Ancient Arabic Order 
Nobles of the Mystic Shrine of North America, which will occur in Washington in 
June, 1923, is expected to bring to the Capital City the largest crowd of sightseers 
which has ever invaded it. It is predicted, from requests for parking space for railroad 
ears, and reservations made in hotels, that more than three hundred thousand visitors 
will crowd Washington dung Shrine week. 


Provisions for the comfort and safety is made in a joint resolution introduced n the 
Senate by Chairman Ball, of the Senate District Committee. This resolution 
appropriates $25,000 or so much of that sum as may be necessary for the maintenance 
of public order, the safety of the public, etc., during the annual session of the Imperial 
Council of the Mystic Shrine. 


The convention will be held from June 3 to June 7, inclusive, but the appropriation 
covers the period from May 25 to June 10. 


The resolution also appropriates funds for the erection of temporary public 
convenience stations, information booths, etc. The commissioners are to be 
authorized to make special police regulations for the occasion, to fix passenger fares, 
and otherwise control the public utilities that would be called into service. - Capital 
News Service. 


— o — 


A BUILDER 


Beneath his hand the tiered marble grew; 



By day he wrought and night; 

He reared the glistening white 
In many-columned grandeur, strong and true, 

To meet glad heaven's down-bending arch of blue. 

But just when with delight 

The craft began with might 

To shape his dreams, he turned to structures new 

The thronging, anxious workmen sought in vain 

Their master everywhere; 

His trestle-board was bare 

Of all the high designs of heart and brain. 

In dust, Time that unfinished labor rolls 
Not stones, alas, but souls. 

- Selected. 

— o — 

MEMORIALS TO GREAT MEN WHO WERE MASONS - 
WILLIAM PINKNEY 


BY BRO. G. W. BAIRD. P.G.M., DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



WILLIAM PINKNEY, who was a member of Amanda Lodge, of Annapolis, Md., 
was Jibom in that city in 1774. His parents were English and Loyalists but the boy, 
like so many other youths in similar circumstances, became staunchly patriot. 


He commenced the study of law in the office of Samuel Chase in 1786, began his 
own practice in Harford County two years later, and became in time a remarkably 
able lawyer and orator of the old school. He was elected to be representative in the 
Maryland House of Delegates, and at the same period was made a state delegate to 
revise the Constitutions of the United States. 


He married Miss Rodgers, at Havre-de-Grace, the sister of the famous Common core 
John Rodgers of the Navy. A large family was born of this union, and their 
descendants are much in evidence in the state of Maryland today. In person Mr. 
Pinkney was a handsome man, with "complexion fair, and light brown hair," and it is 
said that he had a pleasant voice, so pleasant that it materially assisted him in winning 
his hearers to his side. 


While a member of the Maryland House of Delegates he attracted much attention 
through his able advocacy of the right of slave owners to manumit their own slaves. 
Until 1795 he served as a member of the Maryland Executive Council. Later he went 
as a delegate from Arundel County to the state legislature. 


General Washington appointed Mr. Pinkney in 1796 a commissioner to England in 
accordance with the seventh article of Jay's treaty in order to settle with the British 
Government claims made by merchants of the United States for damages occurring 
through "irregular or illegal captures or condemnations"; and during this same period 
succeeded in establishing in the British courts the claim of the State of Maryland to 
own certain stock in the Bank of England. 



Throughout these official labors in London a number of important questions came up 
concerning international law, such as the practices of prize courts, the laws of 
contraband, domicile, blockade, etc.; on these questions Mr. Pinkney submitted 
written opinions 


which are to this day accepted as models of powerful rgument and judicial eloquence. 


Soon after his return to the United States in 1 804 he removed his residence from 
Annapolis to Baltimore, and in 1805 was appointed Attorney General of the state. In 
1806 he was made commissioner with James Monroe, then minister to England, to 
treat with the British Government concerning the capture of neutral ships in time of 
war; these negotiations were partly responsible for the War of 1812. Mr. Pinkney was 
eminently successful in his share of the conduct of these negotiations and did not 
return home until 1811, when he was recalled at his own solicitation. 


Upon his return he was elected to the senate of Maryland, but in the following 
December was appointed Attorney General of the United States. He took a prominent 
part in the demonstrations growing out of the War of 1812 and himself commanded a 
batallion which he raised for the defense of Baltimore. He was wounded severely in 
the Battle of Blandensburg. 


In 1816 he served in the United States Congress as Representative and in 1816 - 1818 
was made minister plenipotentiary to Russia and a special minister to Naples, at 
which latter place he undertook to secure indemnity for American merchants who had 
property confiscated: but in this mission he met with no success. Upon his return to 
the United States he was elected to the Senate and held that place until he died at 
Washington in 1822, at the comparatively early age of fifty-eight. 


He was buried in Congressional Cemetery at Washington, which was the property of 
Christ Church (Episcopal). In this it was the custom at the time to erect little 
inexpensive slaloms of stone whenever a member of Congress died. On one of these 
little stones we may read: 



"In memory of the Honorable William Pinkney, Senator of Maryland in the Congress 
of the United States. Died February 25th, 1822." 


Time has so nearly obliterated the letters that this inscription is now very difficult to 
read. The writer would invite the attention of the Fraternity and of Patriotic Societies 
to the fading of these precious records, the very existence of which may soon be 
disputed by treasonous hyphenated foreigners who are already trying to re-write 
American history in their own interests. 


The writer would also call attention to another point made clear in these memoirs. In 
the early days of the Republic, and in spite of constant friction with Great Britain, our 
envoys met with less friction and obstruction in England than in any other land. 


— o — 


THE AMEX-MASONIC CLUB 
BY BROTHER AUBREY O. BRAY, ARIZONA 


Brother A. O. Bray, the author of the present article, has presented to us an interesting 
account of the formation of one of our Overseas Masonic Clubs. His recital 
reproduces so vividly the obstacles that presented themselves to so many of our clubs 
that what he says for the Amex Club will stand with minor modifications for many of 
the others. The Amex Club was one of our most vigorous and helpful clubs and 
ministered to scores of the Craftsmen. 


On page 1 66 of THE BUILDER for last June I made an announcement concerning an 
effort being made by the National Masonic Research Society to secure and collate all 



possible data concerning Freemasonry in the World War. This work, the direction of 
which has been entrusted to me, is progressing rapidly. Every brother who possesses 
such information as that contained in the splendid article below should send the same 
to me. 


Brother Bray is now an attorney in Tucson, Arizona. His affiliations are numerous: 
John El. Felts Lodge No. 29, Norwood, Georgia; Hubert Chapter No. 120 R.A.M., 
Warrenton, Georgia; Plantagenet Commandery No. 12, Milledgeville, Gal; Al-Sihah 
Temple, Macon, Gal; Square and Compass Club, College of Law, University of 
Southern California. Phi Alpha Mu (Masonic) Fraternity, University of Southern 
California; Corresponding Member, Quatuor Coronati Lodge, London. For further 
reference to the Amex Club see THE BUILDER, January 1922, page 5; April 1922, 
page 159. 


Charles F. Irwin, Associate Editor. 


SOON AFTER my return to the States and discharge from the army there came to me 
the idea of writing up some of my experiences in which Masonry had a part while I 
was in the army. The ones of most interest to the Craft in general would, of course, be 
those which occurred in connection with the Amex-Masonic Club, at Camp De 
Souge, France, which it was my good fortune to assist in organizing. On account of 
subsequent injuries, and nearly four months in the hospitals, my memory was 
somewhat dulled and I was unable to call to mind the names of many brothers who 
took an active part in both the formation of the club and its work. Also I had not 
heard anything from the club since the date of leaving Camp De Souge for the front. I 
immediately began efforts to secure the records of the club so as to refresh my 
memory and get the subsequent activities in which it engaged. But unfortunately it 
has proved difficult to dig up the facts. I followed up every clew without any success. 
Brother William G. Prime of New York, a member of the Masonic Overseas Mission, 
was also consulted, as he had visited the club while in France. So far I have been 
unable to locate them. 



Brother Irwin, who is laboring so hard in this field, has been insisting that I go ahead 
and write up what I remember, leaving the rest, and subsequent events, to be written 
up when the records are discovered. If any brother who had an active part in the work 
of the Club during the time of which I write is not mentioned by name, he will please 
understand that it is not an intentional slight, but a failure of memory. 


About the middle of July, 1918, 1 was taken with an attack of "flu," then just 
beginning its start in our army, and sent to the camp hospital at De Souge. I soon 
discovered that the man in the bed next to me was Scottish Rite Mason, Corporal 
Chambers of Battery A, 342 F. A. As our beds almost touched we began to hold 
brotherly conversation before either of us was able to sit up. As soon as we were able 
to get out of bed and walk around, we found several other Masons in the same ward. 
Just about this time the wounded men from the front began to arrive at our hospital. 
We found several who had not been paid for some time, and consequently were 
absolutely penniless. Also many of them had not had an opportunity to converse with 
brethren many months. Some were very downhearted as a result of the hardships 
which they had suffered, and the inadequate medical attention they had received. It 
was a great relief to them to again have an opportunity to talk with brethren. 


It was while convalescent in this hospital, and as a result of seeing these men, that 
there came to me the idea of some kind of Masonic organization at the camp to get 
the brethren together, and to relieve some of the sufferings and hardships incident to 
the service, and especially of those in the hospital. 


On rejoining my regiment, I found that the same idea had already been discussed 
among the brethren there. Some time during the first week in August several of the 
brethren, among whom were Sergeant Rhinehold, Supply Sergeant of Battery C, 340 
F. A., Sergeant Dick Schuster, Battery C, Jay N. Christman of the Medical 
detachment, and myself, were in the supply room of Battery C one afternoon after 
retreat, discussing the question of an organization. We decided that the organization 
should embrace the entire camp. We set an afternoon for the formal organization and 
resolved to pass the word around to all the brethren with whom we came into contact 
in the meantime, asking them to pass it along likewise. 



The meeting was to be held in the same room, Battery C supply room, and long 
before the hour set the room was crowded to overflowing. Just across the parade 
ground was a large pit from which gravel for making roads through the camp was 
taken. We decided to emulate the custom of our ancient brothers of meeting on the 
highest hills and in the lowest vales, and consequently adjourned to the gravel pit. 


The sun was just disappearing in one of those beautiful red sunsets in a cloudless sky 
which defies all description, when we reached the rendezvous. In the twilight - which 
is much longer in that latitude than hero between sunset and dark a permanent 
organization was formed. Brother Warren D. Vincent, affectionately known as "Dad," 
of Hoisington Lodge No. 331, Hoisington, Kansas, Supply Sergeant of the 314th 
Ammunition Train, was elected president. The writer was elected secretary and 
treasurer, and accepted upon the condition that brother Montgomery of the 
Ammunition Train be appointed assistant, which was done. Brother Max A. Payne, 
Zion Lodge No. 1, Detroit, was elected corresponding secretary. There were other 
officers elected but I cannot recall them. I will pause here long enough to say that 
brother Montgomery kept the books for the secretary-treasurer, and to extend my 
appreciation to him for the efficiency with which he kept them, and the work he 
relieved me of. Brother Will Hetherington, Nebraska Lodge No. 1, Omaha, Neb., also 
rendered appreciated assistance in preparing the minutes from my notes, as he wrote a 
legible hand, which I did not, and had more time. Brother Montgomery was also 
appointed chairman of the hospital visitation committee. 


MEET IN A "Y" BUILDING 


It was decided to hold the next meeting one week later at the Y.M.C.A. building 
nearest brigade area. Permission for the use of a room was secured, notices posted in 
all the Y.M.C.A. buildings in camp, and all brethren asked to pass the word at every 
opportunity. We thought that the room at the "Y" would be large enough to 
accommodate all who would wish to attend, but soon it was too crowded to carry on 
business, and a large crowd gathered outside. Again we were forced to resort to the 
customs of our ancient brethren, and adjourned to the top of a small sand hill just 
west of the "Y" building. To use the words of "Dad" Vincent, "we adjourned to the 
top of Mount Moriah." 



At this meeting the constitution prepared by the constitutional committee was 
adopted, and the prior election of officers was confirmed. The name of " Amex- 
Masonic Club" was adopted for the organization. This meeting lasted for some time 
after dark. There had been about forty brethren at the meeting in the gravel pit, but 
there were over two hundred at this meeting. That will give you some idea of how the 
club grew, and of the work of the secretary-treasurer at this meeting. Some of the 
brethren produced a couple of candles for the secretary's use when it grew dark, and 
one of the writer's most vivid recollections is of lying sprawled out in the sand upon 
his stomach while he collected the five-franc registration fee and scribbled down the 
names and lodges of the new members by the light of these candles. 


The purposes of the club were to bring the brethren in the various organizations in 
camp into communication and thereby promote Masonic fellowship; to further the 
application of Masonic principles to the daily lives of the brethren; and to relieve in 
every way possible the hardships incident to the service, especially of the brethren in 
the camp hospital. 


To provide the necessary funds a registration fee of five francs, about eighty cents at 
that time, was charged. As all the organizations at camp, except the regular camp 
forces, were there just temporarily for training before going to the front, it was 
believed that the brethren in the incoming organizations would about equal in number 
the brethren in the outgoing organizations. As there was a brigade leaving and one 
entering camp almost every day, our membership would be kept at about the same 
number and a sufficient income would be produced from the registration fees of the 
new members. These surmises proved correct. After reaching a membership of about 
350 at the third meeting, it remained around that figure as long as I was at camp, with 
a steady income from new registrations. The club prospered financially as will be 
shown later on. 


It is easy to be seen from the foregoing that the problem of an adequate place to meet 
was a very pressing one at this time. There was only one building large enough for 
our needs in our brigade area: that was the mess hall of the 3 14th Ammunition Train. 
"Dad," the president, secured permission from the commanding officer of the Train to 



use this hall for our meetings. The problem of lighting then confronted us. There were 
no lights in any of the barracks or mess halls in our area. On account of the "daylight 
saving" craze Was then at its height, breakfast was the only meal at which lights were 
needed. The Government seemed to think that we could eat breakfast in the dark, and 
that we should be in bed by dark anyway. By the time the Ammunition Train finished 
the evening mess it was too dark in the hall to carry on business. Brother Vance, 
Sergeant in the Camp Engineers, used a pull with the camp electrician and got the hall 
wired and furnished with globes for us. 


We were now in position to hold some real meetings. The first meeting in the mess 
hall, which was the third held by the club, almost filled the hall to capacity. 
According to a notation made in my field memorandum book, Lieutenant 
Weatherwax, of St. Charles Lodge No. 141, Charles City, Iowa, was registered as a 
member at this meeting, and was the first commissioned officer to enter the club. 
Other officers soon came in, Captain W. H. Mick, of Nebraska Lodge No. 1, Omaha, 
Nebraska, finally becoming president of the club. While I am speaking of officers, I 
will relate this incident. At one of our meetings in the mess hall a major made a talk 
in which he said that he had known many Masons in the army, from the highest 
officers to the "buck" private, in all branches of the service, and that he had never 
seen one shirk his duty in the least. 


L ORAGING LOR REFRESHMENTS 


In the interim between the meeting on the sand hill and the first meeting in the mess 
hall, the executive committee decided that we should have some refreshments at the 
meeting. This policy was approved, the club and became a fixed custom. One of the 
first decisions in regard to refreshments was that we would not have anything to 
drink, as we felt that the boys were getting enough of that on the outside. It was very 
difficult to get anything suitable in sufficient quantities for such a large number on 
account of the food situation in France at that time. Of course, anything which 
necessitated cooking was out of the question, as such refreshments were impossible 
under the conditions. There seemed to be a good supply of grapes Old nuts at the 
French stands set up along the roads leading into the camp and just outside the camp 
gates. We could get tobacco and cigarettes from the quartermaster, and occasionally a 
box of cigars. It proved harder to get sufficient quantities of grapes and nuts than it 



first seemed. I went out among the French stands "well heeled" with club funds, but 
the French would not sell any large quantities, even at higher prices than they were 
charging (and they severe charging enough). I even offered to buy the entire stock but 
they all turned me down. Returning into camp greatly disappointed, I met Mess 
Sergeant Charlie Murphy, of Battery E, 340 th F.A. a devout Roman Catholic and 
Knight of Columbus, just going out on a ration expedition himself. I knew that 
Murphy was the best rustler of rations in the army, as I was in Battery E for the first 
ten months I was in the service. Also, I knew Murphy well personally. We lived in 
the same little Arizona town, and went to camp together at the first call. I knew that if 
anybody could get what we wanted, Murphy could. I told him my troubles in full. A 
bargain was immediately made, whereby a Knight of Columbus became purchasing 
agent for a Masonic club. Nobody could have filled the bill better. As long as Murphy 
and myself remained at camp we were well supplied. It was a matter of great personal 
sorrow to me to learn that after the armistice, Murphy died of pneumonia in Germany. 


While I am on the subject of the refreshments I shall tell a little incident on "Dad," 
our president, which was the cause of many good natured jokes at his expense. Dad 
was going up to Bordeaux on a quartermaster truck one day and suggested that he buy 
up a supply of refreshments for the next meeting while he was in Bordeaux and have 
them brought back on the truck. This met with hearty approval, as we were sure he 
could get up a fine layout in the big city. Dad returned in a touring car with an officer 
and the truck came on later, but without Dad's purchases! Dad had bought a lot of 
stuff and had it all collected in one French store for the truck to call and bring to 
camp. The truck never succeeded in getting it. Whether Dad, a stranger in Bordeaux 
was unable to give the truck driver correct directions; whether the truck driver was 
unable to follow Dad's directions; whether the shrewd Frenchman saw a chance to 
grab the stuff; or whether the truck driver got it and disposed of it to his own profit, 
we were unable to learn. 


The hospital committee under brother Montgomery did great work among the 
brethren in the hospital. After every meeting of the club there were always some 
smokes, grapes, and nuts left over. These were turned over to the hospital committee 
for distribution among the sick and wounded in addition to the regular hospital 
appropriation. One of the men on duty in the receiving ward of the hospital was a 
brother, and assisted in locating sick and wounded brothers in the wards. Several 
times a week brother Montgomery and his committee went through the hospital 
distributing fruits, smokes, etc., to the wounded brethren. Messages from and to the 



sick brothers in the hospital were carried by the committee to and from friends and 
brothers on the outside. Many of the men in the hospital were in low spirits, and it 
was a source of great cheer to them to see and talk with the committee, and to know 
that the Great Fraternity to which they belonged had not forgotten them, even though 
our Government, or perhaps I should say the Secretary of War, apparently 
discriminated against it and would not allow it to engage in any organized effort on 
behalf of the soldiers in our armies. * Each brother felt himself a committee of one, 
representing his lodge, and Masonry in general, charged with the duty of assisting the 
brethren, extending charity and relief to all his fellow men, and exemplifying 
Masonic principles and traditions in his daily relations with his fellow men. Of the 
work done by individual Masons in combating Bolsheviki ideas among the troops 
after the armistice, I may speak in a later article. It was worth all of our efforts in 
behalf of the sick brethren to see the changes in their faces, and observe the new tenor 
of their conversation after a few minutes of talk with the committee. Brother 
Montgomery reported one man in the hospital who had been elected to take his 
degrees in a Pennsylvania lodge, but before having an opportunity to take them, had 
been sent overseas. In the fighting at Chateau- Thierry he had a leg shot off. The Club 
instructed the committee to treat him as a brother. I have often wondered if he ever 
got his degrees. 


TO THE FRONT 


Near the first of September there came a rumor that orders had been issued for our 
Brigade to move toward the front. Consequently at the next meeting an election was 
held to replace the club officers who were in our Brigade. Brother Vance, whose first 
name and lodge I do not remember, of the Camp Engineers, was elected president, 
and a Corporal in the Camp Quartermaster Corps was elected secretary. There were 
other changes, but being unable to recollect them and having no records I am unable 
to give them. 


I will ask the reader to pardon me while I relate a personal incident which illustrates 
some of the fortunes of war. The day before we left camp, about September 10, 1918, 
our regiment was paid, which was the last pay day I had until I reached Newport 
News, Va., December 30th, 1918. Everybody knew that we were leaving immediately 
for somewhere on the front, and that it would in all probability be the last pay day we 



would have in many months, if indeed we were ever to get another one before 
returning to the States. Although having unlimited funds in France, the paymaster's 
machinery was completely "bogged down." I had in my purse about a thousand francs 
which belonged to the club, and about four hundred francs of my own, mostly saved 
up while I was sick and unable to spend it. After every meeting of the Club I would 
bring the money I received from the registration fees, mostly five-franc notes, to the 
barracks and trade in the small notes among the men for large ones so as to reduce the 
bulk of the roll. Knowing that everybody in the barracks had seen me with this 
unusual roll of money, I always slept in my shirt with my purse buttoned up in my 
shirt pocket. Getting a few minutes off from the work of preparing for departure, I 
went over to the quarters of Sergeant Vance, the newly-elected president, took all the 
books, with the treasurer's book balanced, and settled with him in full, paying him 
about a thousand francs. In my hurry to get back, after settling with him, I put my 
purse in my blouse pocket instead of my shirt pocket. Passing through the barracks on 
my way to work, I removed my blouse and threw it on my bunk, forgetting that my 
purse was in it. When I returned somebody had stolen the purse. They made a pretty 
good haul as it was, but I have an idea that they were disappointed in not getting the 
club funds also. Had they been ten minutes sooner, they would have put me in a very 
embarrassing position with the brethren as I would not have been able to replace the 
money at that time. No doubt my explanation would have been accepted without 
question, but I would never have felt right about it. In this instance "Lady Luck" was 
both with me and against me. 


My lodge card and all my identification papers were in the purse. I soon realized that 
to locate the thief was impossible, I posted notices that if my lodge card and papers 
were placed where I would find them, I would forget about the money and ask no 
questions, but they were never returned. 


I was now about to begin the journey to the front, facing the possibility of not getting 
another pay day, and getting wounded, with months in the hospitals without a cent 
(which actually happened), or of being captured and having no funds with which to 
better my condition. The brethren in my company, among whom were brothers Will 
Hetherington, Nebraska Lodge No. 1, Omaha, Jesse Sollenberger, Pelton, Geil, and 
others, whose names I do not remember, each contributed a loan of five francs. This 
came in very handy, and I made it go as far as possible during the three months I was 
in the hospitals after getting gassed at Thiacourt on October 4th. 



THE CLUB PROSPERS 


It will be seen that the club was in a growing condition, and prosperous financially 
when 1 left. It must have continued to prosper, for I have a letter from Dr. (formerly 
Captain) W. H. Mick, Nebraska Lodge No. 1, Omaha, saying that upon his return to 
the States in January 1919, he deposited with the Grand Master of New York one 
thousand francs, the property of the club, and that he later received acknowledgment 
of receipt from brother Boaz, the subsequent president of the club. Brother flick was 
president of the club when ordered to the States, and did not have time to account 
with his successor in office. 


Brother William C. Prime, of New York, in his report to the Masonic Service 
Association, mentions visiting this club in April 1919. ** It must have been active up 
until the time the camp was finally abandoned. The information I have at present 
indicates that Brother Boas was the last president of the club, but I have been unable 
to ascertain his lodge or his address. Both Captain Hick and myself have exhausted 
every lead we could get, but without success. If any brother reading this can assist in 
locating him, please communicate with me at once. 


Any brother having information of the activities of the club subsequent to September 
10th, 1918, or of anything previous to that time not mentioned herein, will do a great 
favor by communicating with me. I consider this just the beginning of the history of 
the club, which I hope to revise and complete at a later date when time and diligent 
search reveal the records. 


* On this subject see THE BUILDER, Vol. V, 1919, pages 59, 87, 115. 


** See THE BUILDER, December, 1920, page 324. 



O 


WE BUILD! 

We Build! 

It matters not the stuff or stock we use, 

The hours of labor or the tools we choose, 

If out each soaring plan be drawn aright, 

If but our course be ever toward the light; 
Nor need we haggle o'er the day's reward, 
Whose toil is honest in the eyes of God. 

We Build! 

It matters not the how, the when, the where, 
If men can see that all our works are fair: 

No greater he who wields the captain's sway 
Than he who learns to serve and to obey: 
Whate’er the fabric we would fain erect, 


Some must bear burdens and some must direct. 



We Build! 


It matters not the end we have in view 
If but each workman to himself be true: 

He builds on sand, tho he may win acclaim, 
Who builds not character to buttress fame; 

The Golden Rule must shape the builder's will, 
The temple, lacking soul, is empty still. 

We Build! 

It matters not if impious hands would drag 
Thru license, lust and lawlessness, that flag 
Which stands for consecrated blood, far spilt 
To save those sacred things our fathers built: 
We shall defend them, too, and failing - then 
We'll vow by God, to build them up again! 

- George Sanford Holmes. 


— o — 



Who does the best his circumstance allows, does well, acts nobly; anger could do no 
snore. — Young. 


— o — 


FREEMASONRY’S RESPONSE TO THE CHALLENGE OF FORT BAYARD 


BY BROTHER FRANCIS E. LESTER, P.G.M., NEW MEXICO 


IN THE January, 1922, issue of THE BUILDER there was published a statement 
under my name setting forth the conditions at Fort Bayard, New Mexico, the largest 
Government Tuberculosis Hospital in the country, where something over 1100 
tubercular war veterans are patients. In that statement I explained the challenge to 
Masonry that existed by reason of the fact that the two hundred or more Masons in 
that Government Hospital were receiving from Masonry few or no measures of relief. 


The article referred to produced remarkable results. Supplemented by an appeal to the 
various Grand Lodges of the United States, it led many of them to send in 
contributions, none less than $500, for the needed relief. The Grand Lodge of New 
Mexico at its February communication definitely endorsed, and pledged itself to this 
undertaking, and although it represents less than 6,000 Freemasons, a contribution of 
$ 1 000 for the building fund and $ 1 00 per month for relief purposes was made in 
addition to liberal contributions from the constituent Blue Lodges, the Scottish Rite 
and the Shrine of New Mexico. A Freemason of San Antonio, Texas, Brother Robert 
J. Newton, became so impressed with the merits of the Fort Bayard situation that in 
personal conference he brought it to the attention of Brother Leon M. Abbott, Grand 
Commander of the Northern Scottish Rite Jurisdiction, with the ultimate result that 
that Body has contributed the sum of $25,000 which it is estimated will cover the cost 
of a building to be erected for relief purposes at Fort Bayard for the Masonic 
organization known as the Sojourners' Club, and the plans for the building are now 
completed and its construction is about to be undertaken. There remains the question 
of properly financing the maintenance and relief fund for this work. 



Many Blue Lodges throughout our country and individual Masons in various parts of 
the country have responded to the appeal appearing in the January BUILDER. Among 
these is the case of a Freemason in a far eastern state who, reading this appeal, gave 
up an anticipated trip to his home lodge in a nearby town for the purpose of 
witnessing the installation of his lodge officers, and remitted the cost of that trip to 
the Fort Bayard relief fund. The amount was small, but the spirit of sacrifice was 
large. That same Brother Mason on numerous occasions has secured from one source 
or another a considerable number of contributions, and has remitted them for this 
relief project. 


The funds already available have resulted in a complete change in Masonic conditions 
at Fort Bayard. These changed conditions have renewed the energies of the faithful 
workers of the Sojourners' Club, and have inspired and cheered our afflicted brother 
Masons, many of them helpless, at Fort Bayard. Whereas it was previously a common 
saying there that if a man was a Mason, "nobody cared," it is now recognized that a 
Mason has behind him an organization whose conception of relief is something more 
than a subject for ritualistic lip-service. 


The relief funds of the Sojourners' Club at Fort Bayard are carefully administered in a 
business-like manner. Its Treasurer is under bond and detailed monthly reports are 
rendered. All remittances should be sent to R. W. Brother A. A. Keen, Grand 
Secretary, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 


This statement is made in the belief that it will cheer the hearts of Masons everywhere 
to know that something definite and worthy is being accomplished at Fort Bayard in 
the name of Masonry, and that the big work just started there promises large 
accomplishments. 


EDITOR'S ADDENDUM 



After the foregoing had been set in type a letter was received from Brother Arthur 
Harris, welfare worker in the Sojourners' Club at Fort Bayard, who forwarded a 
clipping from the El Paso Times, of issue September 2, 1922. This newspaper account 
is of such interest that, with Brother Lester's consent, it is here added to his own 
account of one of the most genuinely Masonic undertakings ever attempted. 


Fort Bayard, N.M., Sept. 2. - The first social service building ever put into a hospital 
by a fraternal organization, other than the K. C. huts of the Knights of Columbus war 
time activities' branch, will be the handsome building of the Sojourners' Club, which 
will be built at Fort Bayard by the Masonic Order. Bids hat asked for and ground will 
be broken for the foundations by October 1 . Plans for the building were drawn by 
Forrester & McCullough, architects, of Washington. Scottish Rite Masons of the 
Northern Jurisdiction have raised the $20,000 to $30,000 it is estimated the building 
will cost. 


The Sojourners' Club is an organization of all Masons at Fort Bayard, including 
officers, employee and patients. They announce as their ideal the service of all 
mankind, regardless of whether he belongs to their Order, and especially to interest 
themselves in relieving the condition of gassed and sick soldiers unable to secure 
compensation from the government, due to their inability to trace their disability to 
military service. 


The club was organized in January, 1919. It was discontinued from June to 
November, 1920, due to loss of members caused by departure of personnel at the time 
the hospital was transferred from the army to the public health service. It now has a 
membership of 200. 


Plans for the club building provide for a two-story building of either stucco or 
finished lumber. On the first floor will be an auditorium with a seating capacity of 
500 and a modem stage, also a billiard room, ladies' rest room, a kitchen and a 
lounging room. The second floor will contain the club rooms, a secretary's office, and 
several guest rooms. There will be handsome porches for both floors 50 feet long and 
10 feet wide. 



Arthur Harris, formerly an employee in the registrar's office, has been employed by 
the club as welfare worker and assumed his duties Friday. 


A number of the medical staff states that Fort Bayard is the foremost experiment in 
America of the evolution of hospitalization. The conception of a hospital as a place 
where the patient may be nursed back to health with full mental power as well as full 
physical power, and without living in the discomfort of usual hospital life, is 
entertained by all at Fort Bayard. It is due to this conception of hospitalization that the 
Sojourners' Club is building its handsome new club. The American Legion is also 
following out this general idea, and as an experiment, has placed a salaried liaison 
officer here. This is the first hospital in which either the Legion or Masonry has tried 
this experiment. 


— o — 


THE STUDY CLUB 


THE TEACHINGS OF MASONRY 


BYBRO. H. L. HAYWOOD 


The following paper is one of a series of articles on "Philosophical Masonry," or “The 
Teachings of Masonry," by Brother Haywood, to be used for reading and discussion 
in lodges and study clubs. From the questions following each section of the paper the 
study club leader should select such as he may desire to use in bringing out particular 
points for discussion. To go into a lengthy discussion on each individual question 
presented might possibly consume more time than the lodge or study club may be 
able to devote to the study club meeting. 



In conducting the study club meetings the leader should endeavor to hold the 
discussions closely to the text of the paper and not permit the members to speak too 
long at one time or to stray onto another subject. Whenever it becomes evident that 
the discussion is turning from the original subject the leader should request the 
members to make notes of the particular points or phases of the matter they may wish 
to discuss or inquire into and bring them up after the last section of the paper is 
disposed of. 


The meetings should be closed with a "Question Box" period, when such questions as 
may have come up during the meeting and laid over until this time should be entered 
into and discussed Should any questions arise that cannot be answered by the study 
club leader or some other brother present, these questions may be submitted to us and 
we will endeavor to answer them for you In time for your next meeting. 


Supplemental references on the subjects treated in this paper will be found at the end 
of the article. 


PART XVII - BROTHERLY AID 


I 


IT IS ONE of the principal uses of history that it enables us better to understand the 
present. We are ourselves so intimately related to our world as it now is, and this 
world is so complicated, that often it is quite impossible for us to form a true 
conception of it. But after a few decades have passed, and our own period detaches 
itself and becomes a unity, so that it can be viewed as a whole and as a thing by itself, 
it becomes greatly simplified; multitudes of bewildering details drop away, and it 
stands forth in its essentials, so that the historian can grasp it in its true proportions 



and relations. In this wise it often happens that in a certain true sense no age is 
understood until it has taken its place in history. This fact itself in turn can be 
brought about to enable one to view his own period as if it were a thing past, for it 
often happens that we discover some earlier period to be so like our own that to learn 
to understand that past period is to enable one's self to understand one's own. All this, 
which seems so remote from the theme of this paper, is written to explain why I shall 
begin the study of Brotherly Aid by a rapid sketch of a condition that developed itself 
among the Roman people many centuries ago. That condition, I believe, was the 
same in essentials as the condition in which we now live, so that by viewing it as a 
whole we can the better understand the social world in which we find ourselves. 


In the early days of the Republic Roman life was a very stable thing, and Roman 
customs were almost stationary. A man grew up in the house in which he was born; 
when he married he brought his wife to live with him under the paternal roof; and 
when he died he left his own sons abiding in the same place. Neighbouring families 
were similarly stable, and all these groups, owing to this perpetual neighbourliness 
and to intermarriage, became so inwoven with each other that in a community there 
would be not one stranger. A man's life took root in such a community like a tree and 
grew there permanently. The individual was not left to his own private resources: he 
was surrounded by others who were ever at hand to aid him in misfortune, nurse him 
in illness, and mourn him in death. He was strong with the strength of his family and 
of his neighbourhood, and this no doubt accounts for the sturdy manhood and 
womanhood of the early Romans. 


* * * 


What are the principal uses of history? Why is it difficult for us to understand our 
own time? How does history help to learn the present by means of the past? Describe 
conditions under which the early Romans lived. In what way did this make for a 
healthy manhood? How did these conditions protect a man from physical and moral 
bankruptcy? How does the history of Freemasonry help you to understand 
Freemasonry as it now is? Did you live in childhood under conditions similar to those 
described? 



II 


But there came a time when the long enduring stability of Roman life was broken up. 
By gradual degrees the Romans conquered adjoining territory. A great military 
system was organized. Whole nations were brought into the Roman system. Alien 
peoples flocked into Italy, and new religions established their headquarters in Rome. 
The Republic gave way to the Empire, and the Senate succumbed to the Emperor. 
Great cities arose; travel was made possible; and a feverish restlessness took the place 
of the old stability. The old calm neighbourhood life was destroyed and in its place 
there grew up a fermenting life in town and city. A man no longer lived and died in 
the place of his birth, but moved about from community to community, so that men 
became human tumbleweeds evermore shifting about from place to place as the 
windy currents of chance might carry them. It came to pass that a man lived a 
stranger in his own neighbourhood, so that he scarce knew the other persons living 
under the same roof. He was thrown back on his own unaided individual resources in 
misfortune and in death. In the unequal struggle he often became morally bankrupt 
and the constant strain undermined his health. It was for such causes that Rome 
ultimately fell. 


In this situation men set out about the creating of a bond that would take the place of 
the lost neighbourhood ties. They organized themselves into Collegia. These groups 
were formed of men engaged in the same trade and they usually, in the early days of 
their history, were principally devoted to securing for a man a becoming burial 
service, the lack of which so filled a Roman with dread. But in the course of time 
these organizations - we could justly call them lodges - assumed more and more 
functions until at last a man found in them charities, social life, business aid, religious 
influences, friendship, and such other features of general protection as caused him to 
call his own group "My Mother Collegium." To live a stranger in a city was not 
longer a thing to dread to a man who could find in such a fellowship the same 
friendship and support that his forefather had secured in the old-time neighbourhood. 


* * * 



What broke up the stability of ancient Roman life? Did the Romans come to have 
cities, factories, tenements, etc? What was Rome's "immigration problem"? Was it 
like ours? What cause led to the breakdown of Roman character? What were 
Collegia? How were they organized and what purposes did they serve? 


Ill 


It would be easy to compare with the rise and development of the Collegia the rise 
and development of the Church in the Middle Ages, for the latter came into existence 
to serve similar purposes; but there is no need of this, because the idea has already 
been made sufficiently clear. So is it also clear, I trust, that we men of today are 
living under just such conditions as brought the Collegia into existence, which is the 
one point of this historical excursion. The great majority of us are living in towns and 
cities; and almost all of us are subject to the unsettling conditions that shuttle us about 
from place to place, and from condition to condition, so that life has lost its firmness 
and security. We live in streets where our next door neighbour is a stranger to us; or 
in an apartment house or tenement where with dwellers on the same floor we have no 
ties at all. Our industrial system is such that vast numbers of us are ever moving 
about from one job to another, which fact is true also even of the farmers, the 
majority of whom are tenants, and therefore migratory. In the midst of such 
conditions the individual is often thrown wholly upon his own resources which is 
such an unnatural thing that many break under it. The restlessness and the ache of 
modern life are undoubtedly due in large measure to these facts. 


But it is here that the lodge comes in, for the lodge, from this present point of view, is 
nothing other than a substitute for the old-fashioned small community life wherein 
neighbour was so tied to neighbour that there was no need of associated charities, 
social centers, or employment bureaus. In a lodge a man need no longer be a 
stranger: he finds there other men who, like himself, are eager to establish 
friendships, engage in social intercourse, and pool the resources of all in behalf of the 
needs of each. The fraternal tie redeems a man from loneliness and from his old 
pitiable sense of helplessness, and atones for a hundred other ills of city conditions. 

In his fraternal circle is the warmth and security which a man needs if he is not to 
succumb to the pressure of modern life. Little wonder is it that men so often think 



secretly of their lodge as "my mother" and cherish for it until death a deep regard that 
no profane can ever comprehend! 


* * * 


What purposes were served by the Church in the Middle Ages? Have you experienced 
the loneliness of city life? Does moving about make for happiness? Why are so many 
families migratory? What are the effects on health, happiness, morality? What 
function is performed by the lodge in modem life? Have you found the lodge to be a 
circle of friendship? If not, why not? 


IV 


In the ample framework of these facts one can see at a glance what Brotherly Aid 
really is. It is the substitution of the friend for the stranger. It is a spirit which throws 
round a man the comforts and securities of love. When "a worthy brother in distress" 
is helped it is not as a pauper, as in the necessarily cold fashion of public charity, but 
the kindly help which one neighbour is always so glad to lend to another. Masonic 
charity is strong, kindly, beautiful and tender, and not charity at all in the narrow 
gmdging sense of the word. Nay, it does not wait until a brother is in distress but 
throws about him in his strength and prosperity the affectionate arm of friendship 
without which life is cold and harsh. Friendship, fraternity, fellowship - this is the 
soul of Freemasonry of which charity is but one gesture with a thousand meanings. 


* * * 


What is meant by, "Brotherly Aid"? How does Your lodge assist a "worthy brother in 
distress? Could you improve on the Masonic methods of charity? What is the 
difference between Masonic charity and public charity? What is the Bible's teaching 
concerning "charity"? (See I Cor. xiii.) 



o 


SUPPLEMENTAL REFERENCES 


THE BUILDER: 


Vol. I (1915) - Masonry at Work, p. 64; Problems in Masonic Charity, p. 88 


Vol II (1916) - History and Charity, p. 31; Washington, the Man and Mason, p. 43; 
Charity Never Faileth, p. 154; Masonic Homes -I, p. 75; Masonic Homes - II, p. 116; 
Masonic Social Service, p. 99; The Iowa Plan, p. 126; Masonic Social Service - A 
Hospital for Crippled Children, p. 263; Every Lodge a School, p. 308; "Unto the 
Least of These," p. 319; The Fame of the Craft, p. 384 


Vol. Ill (1917) - What an Entered Apprentice Ought to Know, April C.C.B., p. 7; The 
Masonic Relief Association, p. 270; Physical Qualifications of a Candidate, p. 310; 
Fraternal Forum, p. 195; Golden Rule Lodge, p. 220. 


Vol IV (1918) - Louisiana Relief Lodge No. 1, p. 243; Relief Work in World War, p. 
201; Stop, Look, Listen, p. 305; Masonic War Work in England, p. 315; "What is 
Masonry Doing in This War as a Fraternity?" p. 89; Has Masonry a Duty in the War? 
p. 330. 


VolV (1919)- Masonic Relief Association of the United States and Canada, p. 217. 



Vol VI (1920) - Active Charity, p. 97; The Vital Parts of the 
Breast, April C.C.B, p. 3. 


Vol VII (1921) - Masonic Charities in the British Isles, p. 88; Practical Brotherhood, 
p. 102; Everlasting Necessity for Brotherhood, p. 317; Fraternal Side of Old Guilds, 
p. 174. 


Mackey's Encyclopedia-(Revised Edition); 


Charity, p. 143; Collegia Artificum, p. 158; Freemason, p. 282; Freemasonry, p. 283; 
Lodge, pp. 449-451; Middle Ages, p. 483; Roman Colleges of Artificers, pp. 630 - 
634; Stonemasons of the Middle Ages, pp. 718-722; Travelling Masons, pp. 792-795. 


— o — 


OUR STUDY CLUB PLAN 


Our Masonic Study Club Course, of which the foregoing paper by Brother Haywood is 
a part, was begun in THE BUILDER early in 1917. Previous to the beginning of the 
present series on "Philosophical Masonry," or "The Teachings of Masonry," as we have 
titled it, were published some forty-three papers covering in detail "Ceremonial 
Masonry" and "Symbolical Masonry" under the following several divisions: "The 
Work of a Lodge," "The Lodge and the Candidate," "First Steps," "Second Steps," and 
"Third Steps." A complete set of these papers up to January 1st, 1922, are obtainable in 
the bound volumes of THE BUILDER for 1917, 1918, 1919, 1920 and 1921. 



Following is an outline of the subjects covered by the current series of study club 
papers by Brother Haywood: 


THE TEACHINGS OF MASONRY 


1 . - General Introduction. 


2. - The Masonic Conception of Human Nature. 


3. - The Idea of Truth in Freemasonry. 


4. - The Masonic Conception of Education. 


5. - Ritualism and Symbolism. 


6. - Initiation and Secrecy. 


7. - Masonic Ethics. 


8. - Equality. 


9. - Liberty. 



10. - Democracy. 


11.- Masonry and Industry. 


12. - The Brotherhood of Man. 


13. - Freemasonry and Religion. 


14. - Universality 


15. - The Fatherhood of God. 


16. - Endless Life. 


17. - Brotherly Aid. 


18. - Schools of Masonic Philosophy. 


This systematic course of Masonic study has been taken up and carried out in monthly 
and semi-monthly meetings of lodges and study clubs all over the United States and 
Canada, and in several instances in lodges overseas. 



The course of study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information, THE 
BUILDER and Mackey's Encyclopedia. 


HOW TO ORGANIZE AND CONDUCT STUDY CLUB MEETINGS 


Study clubs may be organized separate from the lodge, or as a part of the work of the 
lodge. In the latter case the lodge should select a committee, preferably of three "live" 
members who shall have charge of the study club meetings. The study club meetings 
should be held at least once a month (excepting during July and August, when the 
study club papers are discontinued in THE BUILDER), either at a special 
communication of the lodge called for the purpose, or at a regular communication at 
which no business (except the lodge routine) should be transacted, all possible time to 
be devoted to study club purposes. 


After the lodge has been opened and all routine business disposed of, the Master should 
turn the lodge over to the chairman of the study club committee. The committee should 
be fully prepared in advance on the subject to be discussed at the meeting. All members 
to whom references for supplemental papers have been assigned should be prepared 
with their material, and should also have a comprehensive grasp of Brother Haywood's 
paper by a previous reading and study of it. 


PROGRAM FOR STUDY CLUB MEETINGS 


1. Reading of any supplemental papers on the subject for the evening which may have 
been prepared by brethren assigned such duties by the chairman of the study club 
committee. 


2. Reading of the first section of Brother Haywood's paper. 



3. Discussion of this section, using the questions following this section to bring out 
points for discussion. 


4. The subsequent sections of the paper should then be taken up and disposed of in the 
same manner. 


5. Question Box. Invite questions on any subject in Masonry, from any and all brethren 
present. Let the brethren understand that these meetings are for their particular benefit 
and enlightenment and get them into the habit of asking all the questions they may be 
able to think of. If at the time these questions are propounded no one can answer them, 
send them in to us and we will endeavor to supply answers to them in time for your 
next study club meetmg. 


FURTHER INFORMATION 


The foregoing information should enable study club committees to conduct their 
meetings without difficulty. However, if we can be of assistance to such committees, or 
any individual member of lodges and study clubs at any time such brethren are invited 
to feel free to communicate with us. 


— o — 


EDITORIAL 


THE LARGER MEANING OF THE THOMSON TRIAL 



BY THIS time readers of THE BUILDER have had opportunity to read Brother C. C. 
Hunt's history of the trial of The American Masonic Federation of which the now 
notorious Mathew McBlain Thomson was head; and they have learned that this case 
is one of interest and significance for Freemasons the world over. The manner in 
which the Salt Lake City brethren and their associates managed their end of the trial 
is deserving of great praise, especially so in the scholarly way in which they prepared 
their brief, the credit for which largely belongs to Brother Isaac Blair Evans, one of 
Salt Lake City's brilliant lawyers. Brother Evans has published a volume on the case 
that should have a circulation wherever men are interested in the history, the 
structure, and the working of the Masonic institution, and it is hoped in many quarters 
- in these quarters especially - that Brother Evans and his associates will find a way to 
place the volume on the general market. 


Clandestinism is not a thing of the past. It is probable that it will be very much of a 
thing in the future because as the Fraternity grows in power and in prestige such 
unscrupulous rascals as Thomson and his confederates will be more and more 
tempted to find ways and means of exploiting it. It is a matter for Masters and Grand 
Masters, for Secretaries and Grand Secretaries, and for Jurisprudence Committees to 
think about, and learn about. It is doubtful if one could find a more perfect specimen 
of clandestinism, or a clearer revelation of the ins and outs of clandestine methods, 
than this American Federation: it is like a laboratory case that possesses all the typical 
attributes. 


The trial of the Federation presents a feature of peculiar interest to thorough students 
of Masonry. On the surface the case hung upon the question whether or not Thomson 
had misused the mails, but in preparing their prosecution Brother Evans and his 
associates found it necessary to go to the roots of Masonic history, jurisprudence, and 
philosophy. To solve the immediate and practical problem they were compelled to go 
back and solve the problems of history. Freemasonry is so organized that it is almost 
always thus. What we do today is, by virtue of the very nature of the Craft, 
necessarily linked to what was done yesterday, and new departures must always be 
tested by the ancient landmarks. Masonic history, Masonic study and Masonic 
research are not dry as dust pursuits for a pedant in a comer, but practical everyday 
necessities, without which the most modern and urgent activities will go astray. 



MASONS AND SCHOOLS 


It has been most interesting, and illuminating withal, to observe the reactions to the 
Public School number published last August, especially in the pages of some 
periodicals not always friendly to Freemasonry. In one of these latter an editor cites 
that issue of THE BUILDER "as proof of the fact that Masonry, under cover of a 
professed friendship for the public schools, is trying to destroy all private and 
parochial schools." Nothing could be farther from the truth so far as THE BUILDER 
is concerned, and, unless the present scribe is wildly astray in his interpretation of the 
Masonic mind of the country, the statement is wide of the mark in its larger 
applications. The rank and file of Masons are not out to destroy private schools: they 
know that educational needs are altogether too various to be satisfied by one system 
and that business, music, theological, technical, correspondence, night, and many 
other types of private schools will be a long time with us. 


But Masons believe at least a majority of them do - that the educational standard of 
private schools should be maintained on a par with public schools in order that pupils 
in the former be not handicapped in the race of life. Also, they believe that education 
is by its nature a thing that should function in the interests of the whole of society and 
not for the sake of private interests. It is the business of a school to turn out well 
trained citizens, not to manufacture children into members of a sect or party. 


* * * 

ILLEGAL WEARING OF LODGE EMBLEMS 


"House': Bill No. 530, By Messrs. Clark & Hilzim 2-9-22. Judiciary 'B'. An Act to 
forbid the wearing of emblems by persons not authorized so to do: 


"Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Mississippi, That whoever not being a 
member of the Confederate Veterans, of the Daughters of the Confederacy, of the 
Sons of Confederate Veterans, of the Sons of the American Revolution, of the 



Daughters of the American Revolution, of the Colonial Dames, of the Grand Army of 
the Republic, of the Sons of Veterans, of the Women's Relief Corps, of the military 
Order of the Foreign Wars of the United States, of the American Legion, of the 
American Legion Auxiliary, of the Masons, of the Woodmen of the World, of the 
Knights of Pythias or of any other patriotic or fraternal organization, shall wilfully 
wear the insignia, distinctive ribbons or membership rosette or button or any imitation 
thereof, shall be punished by a fine of not more than $20.00 or by imprisonment for 
not more than thirty days, or by both such fine and imprisonment. 


"That this act shall be in force and effect from and after the date of its passage." 


The above bill was presented to the Mississippi State Legislature some time back. 

Can any Mississippi brother tell us if it passed? It is to be hoped that it did, for such a 
law should be on the books of every State. While the solons are at it, they should 
include in their proscriptions all fraternity members not in good standing: an expelled 
member, or one dropped for N.P.D., has no more just right to wear an emblem than an 
uninitiated profane. 


— o — 


THE LIBRARY 


A UNIQUE BOOK ON FREEMASONRY 


"The Gospel of Freemasonry," by "Uncle Silas." Published by the Clarke Publishing 
Company, Madison, Wisconsin. Copies obtainable through the National Masonic 
Research Society, 2920 First Avenue East, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Price $1.00 per copy, 
postpaid. 



TO GET the right perspective upon this work it is desirable to know something about 
the author. "B. B.," as he is affectionately known among his friends, is not only a 
typical American in his citizenship, but is a man who practices in his Personal 
relations the virtues that such citizenship suggests. He started out in life under 
circumstances that might well have discouraged him, for he was left an orphan at an 
early age, and was soon thrown upon his own resources. This is doubtless the key to 
his broad understanding of his fellow men. His is not an academic knowledge of 
temptation, human frailities and of the inspiration in the "noble and mysterious 
triumphs, which no eye sees, which no renown rewards, which no flourish of 
trumpets salutes." He is the publisher of one of the greatest papers in the country 
devoted to farmers and farming, but despite his business responsibilities and 
activities, he has taken time to devote himself to the needs of the destitute and of the 
suffering with keen and compassionate understanding. His charity is of the kind in 
which the personal equation enters - not the cold and casual giving to organizations 
entwined in a maze of red tape. He gives and works personally, as a follower of the 
Gentle Nazarene. 


It is typical of Bascom B. Clarke that the profits from the sale of "The Gospel of 
Freemasonry" have been set aside for charity; and this is in itself so novel a thing in 
this materialistic age that it holds the attention, and leads the reader to wonder what 
other novel thing such a man may do or say. And his book is quite in character, filled 
as it is with a homely and quaintly expressed philosophy and illustrative incidents of 
his Masonic experiences. Of course he tells us a great deal that we have long known; 
but he tells it in a way to bring truisms home to us afresh. 


"Freemasonry, Ezra, consists of more than signs and passwords and mystery," he 
says.... "Freemasonry doesn't advertise its business on bulletin boards along the 
railway track and in elevated stations excepting as the acts of its votaries tell of its 
helpfulness to man." 


With this as the foundation of his conclusions, Uncle Silas not only awakens 
concurrence in the minds of his readers, but entertains them with telling comment 
throughout, having frequent recourse to scripture (which few laymen have read more 
assiduously) and incidentally giving an interesting account of how he first became 
interested in Freemasonry. "In grandmother's God," he replied, when asked the 



question, "In whom do you put your trust?" His grandmother was a Methodist. Uncle 
Silas says: "The gospel of Freemasonry, Ezra, consists in being ready and willing to 
strain a point, if necessary, to help those in distress. It beats all how much you can do 
after you think you've done all you can do. Just enter into your closet before going to 
bed, or if you are too tired to pray in a musty closet, why just lie down in bed - it 
doesn't make much difference to the Grand Architect whether you pray like a 
Presbyterian, standing up, or shouting like a Methodist like you thought the Lord was 
deaf, or whether you pray like the Arab, lying on your belly, just so as to pray and 
mean it, old chap - and before you begin to saw gourds for the night, sorter make a 
digest of the day's work and ask God to forgive you for the crooked paths and to help 
you plow straighter furrows next day." 


How can one read this sort of passage without saying, as I did, "Dear, old, hard-boiled 
Uncle Silas!" 


George C. Nuesse. 


* * * 


INFORMATION CONCERNING "ANCIENT FREE MASONRY AND THE OLD 
DUNDEE LODGE, No. 18 - 1722-1920." 


"Ancient Freemasonry, and the Old Dundee Lodge No. 18 - 1722-1920," by Arthur 
Heiron. Published by Kenning Son, 16 Great Queen St., London, England. Copies 
obtainable through the National Masonic Research Society, 2920 First Avenue East, 
Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Price $5.00, postpaid. 


In its issue of September, 1921, THE BUILDER published an article in review of 
"Ancient Freemasonry and the Old Dundee Lodge, No. 18" by Brother Arthur Heiron, 
of England, in which it heartily recommended to Masons everywhere this very 



excellent work. Since that time the book has been received with such favor that the 
publishers are now arranging to issue a new edition. Meanwhile the author has 
prepared for circulation among such brethren as may be interested a circular 
containing a descriptive synopsis of the work, along with a number of appraisals that 
have been trade by competent Masonic critics. Also, and this is of greater importance, 
he has prepared an index which is to be incorporated in the second edition but which 
may now be procured, in booklet form, by those who possess or will purchase copies 
of the first edition. THE BUILDER will furnish either of these to brethren who 
request them. By reading the circular and the index a brother can gain a clear 
knowledge of the book itself, and will not risk spending his money "sight unseen." 


* * * 


TWO NEW BOOKS ON FREEMASONRY 


"Masonry and Citizenship"; “The Master Mason; Speculative Masonry"; both written 
by Rev. Frederick J. Lanier, of Fredericksburg, Virginia, and published by the author 
at that address, to whom orders should be sent. One dollar each, net. 


Down in the Old Dominion Masons are hearing more and more about Brother The 
Rev. Frederick j. Lanier, long an active member of George Washington's old lodge at 
Fredericksburg, Va., and Rector of St. George's Church in that place. Brother Lanier 
has lately informed THE BUILDER that he has resigned his rectorship in order to 
devote his whole time to Freemasonry, which is good news indeed, for he will most 
certainly find a warm welcome and a wide place in his new field. 


Thus far Brother Lanier has published two little books, named above. The former of 
the two is a compilation of brief chapters drawn from such various sources as will 
appear in the list here given along with three chapters original with the author-editor. 
Chapter I is a brief speech by President Harding; II is an "Address to a Newly Made 
Mason," compiled from various sources; III and IV are drawn from "The Builders" by 
Bro. Dr. Joseph Fort Newton; V is "What Makes a Man a Mason," from Maurice 



Penfield Fikes and others; VII, "Masonry and Citizenship," by Roosevelt; VIII, 
"Applied Masonry," by Eminent Sir W. D. Carter; IX, "The Blacksmith," taken from 
Rabbinical sources; X, "Masonry and the American Federation of Labor," by Brother 
Samuel Gompers; XI, "Industrialism To-Day," by Judge Elbert Gary, (is Judge Gary a 
Mason?); XII, "The Future of America," by Harding and others; XIII and XIV, by the 
author, are on "The Duty of Masons in the Present Crisis," and "How Prayer Makes 
the World What It Is." ' 


"The Master Mason," published also during last year (1921) is, though not quite so 
large in bulk, the more ambitious of the two in that it is comprised almost wholly of 
the author's own writings. According to the preface the book "does for those who 
have been initiated, passed, and raised to the sublime degree of a Master Mason what 
'Morals and Dogma' does for Scottish Rite Masonry. It supplements the lectures that 
are given in the several degrees, and will be of great assistance to Masters of lodges." 


To compare this little volume with "Morals and Dogma" is loading it down with a 
needless handicap. It is unlike Pike's magnum opus in every respect. But for all that it 
is interesting to read, and helpful, too, to a Mason who enjoys speculation. If one is to 
find fault at all with Brother Lanier it is that he has resorted too much to his own 
inner consciousness in interpreting Masonic principles and symbols, and too little to 
the interpretations already furnished us by the Craft itself, in its ritual, its history, and 
its jurisprudence. 


The treatment of the Masonic Apron is an example of the evils of this subjective 
method of symbological interpretation. On page 9 the author gives "the form of the 
apron" as an equilateral triangle, a square, and a circle combined. The circle is 
supposed to be the string, and this is explained as being a "symbol of spirit"; the 
triangle represents the flap, and is described as teaching the "threefold personal 
revelation of God"; the square is made to represent the material universe. The Apron 
is also explained as teaching the threefold nature of man, who is said to be body, soul 
and spirit. 



The Masonic Apron is none of these things. It is not a circle, plus a square, plus a 
triangle; it is an apron. It is a piece of lambskin or of cloth of no official shape or size, 
attached to the human body by a string of like material, and having a flap. Among 
Operative Masons it was in use for the obvious and very necessary purpose of 
protecting the clothing. Custom made of it an emblem representing labor, and the 
dignity thereof. To interpret the meaning of the Masonic Apron one must stick to the 
history of it, and to the interpretation already given, times without number, by the 
Fraternity itself. To go far afield, and to treat it as though it were a geometrical 
design, is not to treat it as a Masonic emblem at all. 


Symbology is one of the most difficult of all undertakings in the Masonic field, and 
its difficulties are increased over and over when it is made subjective and personal, 
and detached from history. To resolve our embeds and symbols into geometrical 
diagrams, and then to fill them in with theories of our own, is no proper way to 
precede: but, as Robert Freke Gould said so well once and for all, "the study of our 
history and of our symbolism must be proceeded with conjointly." Only then can we 
keep the solid ground under our feet, and avoid the vagaries of our own private 
fancies. 


This is not to say that "The Master Mason" is full of vagaries and private fancies; far 
from it! Brother Lanier is a well-read man who has thought much, and who has 
discovered the unsearchable riches of the Masonic ritual. Once he has built under 
himself a firm groundwork by thoroughly mastering the classics of Masonic 
symbology and history he will give US some valuable books. 


* * * 


"LE LIVRE DU MAITRE" 


"Le Lime Du Maitre," published in France, and in the French language, 221 pages, 
paper covers. Orders should be sent to the Librairie du Symbolism, Square Rapp 4, 
Paris 7e, France. 



A plan of education for making Freemasonry clear to the brethren was worked out in 
Paris as long ago as 1888 within a Masonic group studying initiation. The Apprentice 
Manual (Livre de l'Appenti) was at once begun but did not appear in print until 1 892 
under the auspices of the Lodge Travail et Vrais Amis Fideles, and bore no individual 
signature. A like work for the benefit of the Fellow Craft (Livre du Compagnon) was 
published in 1911 and was edited in a much larger measure under the personal 
responsibility of Past Master Oswald Wirth. This accomplished brother has now 
brought out the Master Mason's Book (Livre du Maitre) for the use of brethren of the 
Third Degree. He says in his preface to this work: 


"There is no doubt that for the recovery of the lost Word I must have recourse to the 
light of most instructive brethren. These are such as Joseph Silbermann and the 
Brother Hubert, manager of the Chaine d' Union, who have verbally stimulated my 
meditations, also Ragon, Eliphaz Levi, Albert Pike, and, above all, Goethe, have 
instructed me by their writings. 


"But it suffices not in these matters that one digests the thought of others. To tie 
together the broken threads of neglected traditions it is necessary to revive the past by 
an intense and preserving personal effort. One must himself actively live anew in 
ancient times, self-absorbed in the study of significant monuments which we today 
have forsaken. Ruins, superstitions, discredited philosophical doctrines, alien 
religions, all merit examination with care; but nothing is known more revealing than 
poems and myths. 


"Poets whose imagination is enlightened are in Initiation more instructive than cool 
reasoners. The Chaldean epic poem of the heroic Gilgamesh and the compositions of 
a high initiatory bearing, carry us back more than five thousand years. 


“The tale of the death of Osiris and many other fables form by images and symbols 
precepts of the most profound wisdom. The Bible itself is precious for him who 
knows the meaning. The seduction of Eve by the serpent makes pertinent allusion to 



fundamental principles of initiation, the same as with an abundance of more recent 
accounts. 


"Generations transmit to one another fantasms frivolous in appearance though the 
thinker ought not to scorn them. Such are these glowing on the panes of that window 
of the West which the Initiate, setting out in the mom from the East, approaches at 
night, after having at noon examined all things in the full light of day. 


"At daybreak his reason awakes watchful near the East window for the first rays of 
light summoned to penetrate the soul. That illumination too suddenly received may 
dazzle and render him presumptuous. Full of ardor the intelligence thus surprised 
believes itself strong against all error: it sees only everywhere prejudices to fight and 
phantoms to put to flight. That is the age of hasty judgments, holding no account of 
any received authority and carrying condemnation without reserve on all which 
accords not with the independent opinion too hurriedly acquired. 


"That childish exuberance calms down about middle life. It is then that daylight 
mercilessly falls nearly vertically through the window of noon. Objects then project a 
minimum of shadow and reveal themselves in all their reality. This is the time 
suitable for a critical observation of things and permits one to investigate them under 
all aspects. Judgment ought then to be circumspect and to remain poised willingly in 
suspense. An accurate understanding refuses to condemn because with forbearance 
the circumstances may be explained when all the factors involved are fairly 
considered. 


"Full light leads to tolerance which characterizes the Wisdom of Initiates. It becomes 
necessary to arrive where all is judged with serenity in order to obtain the right of 
opening the western window of the Sanctuary of Thought. The Sun is then setting; the 
turmoil of the day calms and the peace of night spreads gradually o'er the land. 

Details become erased in the deepening shadows setting forth the glory of the 
Evening Star before which all others pale. That Star is not the proud Lucifer, inspirer 
of boasting and mutiny: it is the hearth of serene splendor yielding a vision evoking 
the intellectual. Henceforth the night may be veiled in gloom yet darkness outdoors 



prevails not over the light within. When the living are silent, the dead are disposed to 
speak. The hour comes then to draw forth from those retainers the secrets borne by 
them within the tomb. They are the True Masters from whom we are able to bring 
back understanding when we conform to the prescribed rites. 


"But ascribe not to ceremonies only a sacramental value. Hiram is not resurrected 
inwardly because we have outwardly played that part. Nothing counts as Initiation 
beyond what is inwardly accomplished. 


"Strive ye then, Symbolic Masters, to transform symbol into reality. Nominal holders 
of diplomas and wearers of insignia transform yourselves into Thinkers participating 
in an imperishable Thought. 


"May the Book of the Master guide you in the accomplishment of this great work!" 


The book is divided into chapters on "Historical Notes relative to the Master's 
Degree"; "Ritualism of the Master's Degree"; "Philosophic Conceptions pertaining to 
the Master's Degree"; "Duties of a Master Mason"; "Interpretative Catechism of the 
Master's Degree"; "Notes on the Philosophy of Initiation relative to the Master's 
Degree"; "Prerogatives of Mastership"; and "Bibliography for the Use of Master 
Masons." 


The above chapters are divided again into sections: for example, the chapter on 
Bibliography deals in turn with "Religion" the first two books recommended to 
Master Masons on that subject being, by the way, editions of the Bible, "Symbolism," 
"Hermeticism, Alchemy and Occultism," and "Freemasonry," all the books in the lists 
being, of course, in the French language. 



The chapter on an "Interpretative Catechism" has a Dumber of replies of much 
interest to us. Among them we find the following questions and answers relative to 
the story of the fate of Hiram: 


"This is a symbolic fiction, profoundly true because of the education gained thereby." 


"What is that teaching? 


"The pure Masonic tradition, personified by the architect of Solomon's Temple and 
who is constantly in peril through the ignorance, fanaticism and ambition of Masons 
who know not Freemasonry nor devote themselves to this sublime work." 


* * * 


"What signifies this verdant branch [acacia]"" 


“It represents the survival of energies that the "rare cannot destroy." 


* * * 


The candidate is further aspect why he receives the acacia, and he replies: 


"In accepting the acacia 1 bind myself to all which survives of the Masonic tradition. I 
thus promise to study Freemasonry with fervor in all that remains of its past, in its 



rites, its customs, and its practices, without allowing my" self to be turned backward 
by an archaism contrary to the spirit of the times." 


"How severe you received as Master Mason?" 


"In passing from the Square to the Compass" 


"The Compass is then more especially reserved for Master Masons?" 


"Yes, for only they understand the handling of this instrument with profit." 


"What use do they make of the Compass?" 


"They measure all things in taking account of their ret rations to each other. Their 
reason, fixed as the head of the Compass, reports on objects according to the span of 
the Compass points which bind them. The judgment of an Initiate inspires him not 
according to the rigid graduations of the Rule but by the farsight based on a rigorous 
adaption of logic to reality:' 


“What is the insignia of Master Masons?" 


"The Square united with the Compass." 


“What signifies the reunion of these instruments"" 



"The Square controls the work of the Master Mason who ought to act in everything 
with rectitude and inspiring all with the most scrupulous equity. The Compass directs 
that activity for betterment to the end that it finds an application the more judicious 
and fruitful." 


“If a Master Mason was lost, where would you find him?" 


"Between the Square and the Compass." 


"How do you interpret that reply?" 


"The Master Mason seeks to be distinguished by the morality of his actions and by 
the just practice of his reasoning. It is from this point of view that he holds himself 
between the Square and the Compass." 


“What do Master Masons seek?" 


"The Lost Word." 


“What is that word?" 


“The key of the Masonic secret, or in other words, the comprehension of that which 
remains unintelligible to the profane and to the imperfectly initiated." 



"How do Master Masons travel?" 


"From East to West, and from North to South, on all the surface of the earth." 


“Why?" 


"For the diffusion of light and to rather that which is scattered. In other words, to 
learn that they may know and understand that of which they are ignorant, and to 
contribute moreover in bringing about the reign of harmony and fraternity among 
men." 


"On what do Master Masons work?" 


"On the trestle-board." 


"Do they then lay out the plans that others shall execute?" 


"Master Masons prepare for the future which they forsee by building on the 
experience of the past." 


“What use do Master Masons make of the Trowel?" 



"It binds them to cover up the imperfections in the work of Apprentices and Fellow 
Crafts." 


"Of what is it the emblem?" 


"These sentiments of kindliness which animate the man enlightened in regard to all 
the weaknesses of which he discerns the cause." 


* * * 


“What is from that time the object of Mastership?" 


"To search for that Master Mason which in us is the state of an inanimate corpse, to 
bring that death to life, to the end that we bestir ourselves accordingly." 


But the temptation to quote from this handy and suggestive philosophical manual of 
French Freemasonry extends these comments unduly and we must bring these 
random free translations to a halt. 


The book of 221 - 4 3/4, x 7 3/8 inch pages, paper covers, is sold by the Librairie du 
Symbolism, Square Rapp 4, Paris 7e, France. - R. I. Clegg. 



A SOCIOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE NEGRO, WITH A NOTE ON "NEGRO 
MASONRY" 


"A Social History of the American Negro, Being a History of the Negro Problem in 
the United States, Including a History and Study of the Republic of Liberia," by 
Benjamin Brawley; Published, 1921, by The Macmillan Company, Near York, and 
Chicago (to whom orders should be sent). 


This is the most complete sociological study of the Negro by a Negro, probably, that 
has yet been published, and deserves a careful examination; but for our purposes here 
it will be sufficient to quote a passage that deals with "Negro Masonry"; it will be 
found on page 7 Off. : 


"After the church the strongest organization among Negroes has undoubtedly been 
that of secret societies commonly known as lodges. The benefit societies were not 
necessarily secret and call for separate consideration. On March 6, 1775, an army 
attached to one of the regiments stationed under General Gage in or near Boston 
initiated Prince Hall and fourteen other colored men into the mysteries of 
Freemasonry. These fifteen men on March 2, 1784, applied to the Grand Lodge of 
England for a warrant. This was issued to African Lodge, No. 459, with Prince Hall 
as Master, September 29, 1784. Various delays and misadventures befell the warrant, 
however, so that it was not actually received before April 29th, 1787. The lodge was 
then duly organized May 6th. From this beginning developed the idea of Masonry 
among the Negroes of America. As early as 1792 Hall was formally styled Grand 
Master, and in 1797 he issued a license to thirteen Negro to assemble and work as a 
lodge in Philadelphia; and there was also at this time a lodge in Providence. Thus 
developed in 1808 the African Grand Lodge of Boston, afterwards known as Prince 
Hall Lodge of Massachusetts; the second Grand Lodge, called the First Independent 
African Grand Lodge of North America in and for the Commonwealth of 
Pennsylvania, organized in 1815; and the Hiram Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania." 



THE PERIOD OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES 


“England Under the Yorkists, 1460-1485, Illustrated from Contemporary Sources," 
by Isobel D. Thornley: No. 2 in the University of London Intermediate Source-Books 
of History. Published by Longmans, Green and Co., Fourth Avenue and 30th St., 
New York, N. Y., to whom orders should be sent. Price $3.25. 


The period covered by this volume was full of life, color, and dramatic surprises in 
Britain and on the Continent. In 1460 Nicholas of Cusa took the decisive step in 
scholarship that ushered in the Renaissance and signalized the passing of the Middle 
Ages. In 1479 Castile and Aragon were united under Ferdinand and Isabella, except 
for which they would not have been prepared to sponsor Columbus in 1492. The most 
Holy Inquisition began to add its splash of crimson to the picture of the times in 1840. 
Mathias Corvinus took Vienna in 1485. The Russians overthrew the Mongols, and the 
Ottoman Empire made war on Vienna, much to the interest of the popes of the times, 
who, of the Borgia or Medici variety, were as good at gold getting and bloodletting as 
any of their compeers. Colorful days they were indeed! Old Piero set up the house of 
the Medici in Florence and Lorenzo followed him in such wise as to earn his title, 
"The Magnificent." Florence was made over into "Europe's Athens" - at least such 
was the attempt - and Ficinio was set up in the Academy to teach the blooded youth 
how to make charms out of frog's liver. At the same time the prey cocious Pico della 
Mirandola, famous as the discoverer and friend of Savonarola, went about like a 
shining comet, spouting thirteen languages; while Leonardo da Vinci tried to build 
flying machines. 


England was in terrible straits. It is true that trade flourished in the towns and that 
wages reached unparalleled heights - "the golden age of English labor," it came to be 
described - ; it is true that Caxton set up his printing press in 1477; that the times 
made possible the pretty commercial romance of Sir Richard Whittington who had 
the distinction of becoming a hero in Mother Goose, a thing that will probably never 
happen again; but in spite of a modicum of industrial advance in prosperity England 
rocked and shook, and burned and bled, and groaned through such a sea of anarchy 
for a generation as Sovietism itself almost pales beside. The whole period falls inside 
the terrible Wars of the Roses. 



The Wars of the Roses began with the Battle of St. Albans in 1455: it did not burn 
itself out until that unscrupulous fiend, Richard III, dramatized in Shakespeare's play, 
was killed in the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485. During those thirty years twelve 
pitched battles were fought and the hatred among the factions was so intense that 
almost all of the English nobility were slain, a national disaster in those times. The 
Wars were named after the Roses because of the general custom of partisans or 
dependents wearing distinctive badges: the badge of the Lancastrians was the Red 
Rose, that of the Yorkists the White. The trouble began when Henry VI lost England's 
French possessions: it did not end until all parties were exhausted, and the Tudors had 
stepped to the front. 


Readers of Masonic history have a peculiar interest in Henry VI, the last of the 
Lancastrian Kings. Some of our writers, Preston I think was one of them, gave 
currency to a story that this monarch was himself a Mason, and there is a fragment of 
an old catechism extant to that effect, still accepted as gospel by the unwary. Henry 
VI was demented and helpless. But he was very pious and it was long reported that 
miracles occurred at his tomb. An attempt was made to have him canonized a saint 
but the popes asked too big a price. There isn't the slightest evidence that he was ever 
a Mason or that he so much as knew of the existence of the Craft. 


In his history of this troubled time Hume complains of the paucity of available 
records, and explains the lack by the holocausts of destruction which rolled like 
crimson waves across the land. Since Hume much new data has been unearthed. It so 
happens that one of the English savants to whom much of this new knowledge is due 
is an illustrious English Mason, Brother E. H. Dring, who was elected Worshipful 
Master of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati in 1912, and who has contributed to the 
Transactions of that learned body a mass of valuable erudition. He had the good 
fortune to discover The Great Chronicle of London, a document quoted by John 
Stow, but afterwards lost: it is now regarded as "the most important MS. yet 
published relating to the History of the City." In her introductory treatise the author 
expresses her indebtedness to Brother Dring and to his MS. 



"England Under the Yorkists" is not a narrative in itself but comprises a collection of 
original sources. Book I is composed of contemporary accounts of the rise of the 
York faction and its attainment to the crown; Book II gives one a vivid outlook upon 
the legal, criminal, and political customs; Book III has to do with the Church; and 
Book IV, the portion of greatest value to us, furnishes much material on trade, 
industry, education, laboring conditions, etc. On page 218 is an extract from 
regulations made by the Craft of Brewers in London and approved by the Mayor and 
Aldermen. It is followed by examples showing the manner in which guilds controlled 
their members. There is an "Ordinance concerning the Passion Play at Leicester"; 
"The Loundation of a Guild," by Richard III; and there is an account of a guild 
school, and other such matters. 


On page 245 is an extract from "The Babees Book" which was a standard of good 
manners for servants in great households, beginners in which service were probably 
made to learn it by rote. A stanza of it will be quoted here as showing how like it is to 
our own Regius MS., which seems like doggerel to us, but was not at all in its own 
time, when chronicles (history proper did not begin until Thomas More had written 
his "History of Richard III") and other learned works were often composed in rhyme, 
as had been a universal custom in olden times. 


"Now must I telle in shorts, for I muste so, 

Youre observaunce that ye shalle done at none; 

Whenne that ye se youre lorde to mete shade goo, 

Be redy to feeche him water sone, 

Summe belle [clear] water; summe horde to he hathe done 
To clothe to him, and from him yee net pace 
Whils he be sette, and have herde sayde the grace." 


It is becoming more and more the custom in colleges and universities to study 
original sources rather than the elaborated accounts of the literary historians who 



inevitably mix up much rhetoric with the facts. It would be a good custom to establish 
among students of Masonic history. At any rate, every Masonic student should have 
all the original Masonic sources on his shelves. "England Under the Yorkists" is one 
of the volumes to be included in such a list. 


H.L. Haywood, 


— o — 


PUBLICATIONS WANTED, FOR SALE, AND EXCHANGE 


We are constantly receiving inquiries from readers as to where they may obtain 
publications on Freemasonry and kindred subjects which are not offered in our 
Monthly Book List printed on the inside back cover of THE BUILDER. 


Titles which cannot be readily procured through our American and European 
connections will be printed in this column, thus enabling readers having copies to 
dispose of them if they so desire. Inquirers are requested to state what prices they are 
willing to pay, for we are frequently able to obtain books at reasonable prices which 
might be sold out if we were first obliged to have the price approved by the 
prospective purchaser. Such figures will be considered confidential and will not be 
published. 


It is also hoped - and expected - that readers possessing very old or rare Masonic 
works will communicate the fact to THE BUILDER for the benefit of Masonic 
students. 



Postoflice addresses are here given in order that those buying and selling may 
communicate directly with each other. Brethren are asked to cancel notices as soon as 
their wants are supplied. 


In no case does THE BUILDER assume any responsibility whatsoever for 
publications thus bought, sold, exchanged or borrowed. 


WANTED 


By Bro. D. D. Berolzheimer, 334 Fourth Ave., New York, N. Y.: "Records of the 
Hole Craft and Felawship of Masons," E. Conder, 1894; "Masonic Bibliography," E. 
T. Carson, 1876; "Masonic Review" (of Cincinnati), volumes 43, 44, 45, 1873-4; 
Kenning's "Masonic Cyclopedia," 1878; St. John's Card, A.Q.C., 1892; any 
Proceedings or Books of Constitutions prior to 1840; any miscellaneous publications, 
St. Johns Grand Lodge, New York; any miscellaneous publications, Phillips Grand 
Lodge, New York; Lodge of Research No. 2429, Leicester, England, Transactions, 
volumes 1 to 10, inclusive, 1892-1902. 


By Bro. G. Alfred Lawrence, 142 West 86th Street, New York, N. Y.: Proceedings of 
the Scottish Rite Body founded by Joseph Cemeau in New York City in 1808, of 
which De Witt Clinton was the first Grand Commander, and which body became 
united, in 1867, with the Supreme Council of the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction, A. 

& A. S. R. Also Proceedings of the Supreme Council founded in New York by De La 
Motta, in 1813, by authority of the Southern Supreme Council, of which he was 
Grand Treasurer-General, these Proceedings from 1813 to 1860. 


By Bro. George A. Lanzarotti, Casilla 126, Rancagua, Chile: All Kinds of Masonic 
literature in Spanish. Write first quoting prices. 



By Bro. Silas H. Shepherd, Hartland, Wisconsin: "Catalogue of the Masonic Library 
of Samuel Lawrence"; Second edition of Preston's "Illustrations of Masonry"; "The 
Source of Measures," by J. Ralston Skinner, 1876, or second edition, 1894; "Ars 
Quatuor Coronatorum," volumes 1 to 11, inclusive. 


By Bro. Ernest E. Ford, 305 South Wilson Avenue, Alhambra, California: "Ars 
Quatuor Coronatorum," volumes 3 and 7, with St. John's Cards; St. John's Cards for 
volumes 4 and 5, A.Q.C.; "Masonic Review," volumes 1, 2, 7, 31, 32, and 43 to 60, 
inclusive; "Voice of Masonry," volumes 2 to 12, inclusive, and volume 15; 
Transactions Supreme Council Southern Jurisdiction, for the years 1882 and 1886; 
Original Proceedings of the General Grand Encampment Knights Templar for the 
years 1826 and 1835. 


By Bro. Frank R. Johnson, 306 East 10th Street, Kansas City, Mo.: "The Year Book," 
published by the Masonic Constellations, containing the history of the Grand Council, 
R. & S. M., of Missouri. 


By Bro. L. Rask, 14 Alvey St., Schenectady, N. Y.: "Remarks upon Alchemy and the 
Alchemists," by E. A. Hitchcock, Janesville, N. Y., about 1865; "The Secret Societies 
of all Ages and Countries," by C. W. Heckethom; "Lost Language of Symbolism," by 
Harold Bayley, published by Lippincott; "Sacred Hermeneutics," by Davidson, 
Edinburgh, 1843; "Solar System of the Ancients Discovered," by J. Wilson, published 
by Longmans Co., London, 1856; "The Alphabet," by Isaac Taylor, Began, Paul, 
Trench & Co., 1883, or the edition of 1899, published by Scribners, New York; 
"Anacalypsis," by Godfrey Higgins, 1836, published by Longmans, Green & Co., 
London; "Ars Quatuor Coronatorum," any volume or volumes. 


By Bro. N. W. J. Haydon, 564 Pape Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada: "The 
Beautiful Necessity," and "Architecture and Democracy," by Claude Bragdon. 


By the National Masonic Research Society, 2920 First Avenue East, Cedar Rapids, 
Iowa: "Discourses upon Architecture," by Dallaway, published in 1833; any or all 



volumes of "The American Freemasons' Magazine," published by J. F. Brennan, 
about 1860. 


FOR SALE 


By Bro. A. A. Burnand, 690 South Bronson Ave., Los Angeles, California: "Thomas 
Dunckerley," by Sadler; "History of Freemasonry," by Robert Freke Gould, 4 
volumes, full morocco binding, very fine condition; "History of Freemasonry and 
Concordant Orders," Hughan and Stillson. 


By the National Masonic Research Society, 2920 First Avenue East, Cedar Rapids, 
Iowa: See itemized list on inside back cover. 


— o — 


THE QUESTION BOX 


THE BUILDER is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its 
contributors writes under his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. 
Believing that a unity of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research 
Society, as such, does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over 
against another, but offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, 
leaving each to stand or fall by its own merits. 


The Question Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the 
Society at all times. Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited 
from our members, particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are 



following our Study Club course. When requested, questions will be answered 
promptly by mail before publication in this department. 


JOHN ADAMS NOT A MASON 


Can you please tell me when and where President John Adams was made a Mason ? 
While you are at it you might tell me whether John Quincy Adams was a Mason. 


L.T.D., New Hampshire. 


Both of your questions are fully covered in a note on the subject by Brother Dr. 
Frederick Hamilton, Grand Secretary of Massachusetts, and published in the 
Massachusetts Proceedings for 1921, page 193. It would appear to ye editor that this 
definitely settles the question. Dr. Hamilton's note is here given in full: 


"The question is frequently raised as to whether or not John Adams and John Quincy 
Adams were members of the Masonic Fraternity, and the statement that one or the 
other of them was a Mason is not infrequently made. It seems worth while that a 
statement should be made on this point, which shall, if possible, definitely settle the. 


"The case of John Quincy Adams was dealt with in a manner which appears to be 
conclusive in a statement which may be found on page 298 of the Massachusetts 
Proceedings for 1918. [He was not a Mason.] 


"I have made a very careful investigation of the case of John Adams, and I thi nk we 
may regard it as definitely settled that he was not a member of the Fraternity. On page 
134 of the second volume of Massachusetts reprints will be found a letter from 
President Adams which ought to be conclusive. Shortly after Mr. Adams' election to 



the Presidency, a loyal address was sent him by the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts. 
The letter just referred to is a very courteous reply to that communication in which 
President Adams acknowledges the loyalty of the Fraternity, expresses his 
appreciation of it, and refers to the fact that President Washington and many of the 
writer's friends were members of it, but makes the statement that he himself is not a 
member of it. Apparently in order to avoid any possible misunderstanding, the 
President makes this statement in two forms. He says that he is not a member of the 
Fraternity, and elsewhere in the letter says that he was never initiated. 


"This ought to be conclusive, but the natural desire to associate President Adams with 
the Fraternity with which so many of his distinguished colleagues were connected, 
coupled with the fact that the name John Adams appears in a considerable number of 
places in the records of our Grand Lodge and of particular lodges, have led to the 
tradition that John Adams was a member of the Craft. 


"I have carefully examined our index cards, records of our local lodges, and records 
of the Grand Lodge, and have endeavored to analyze evidence obtained therefrom, 
with the following results: 


"Our lodge records show that there were three men by the name of John Adams who 
were members of Boston lodges. 


"I. John Adams took his degrees in the First Lodge in Boston, now St. John's Lodge, 
in 1750, and died in 1795. The dates prove that this was not the President. 


"II. John Adams took his degrees in St. Andrew's Lodge in 1778. This could not have 
been the President as he was in France during the whole of that year. 


"HI. John Adams took his degrees in Columbian Lodge in 1800, in February, and 
April. This could not have been the President as the dates were in the middle of his 



Presidential term when he was busy in Washington and neither the records nor the 
history of the lodge claim him as President. The President was at this time 65 years 
old. 


"The records of the Grand Lodge show that a John Adams was present at the Feast of 
St. John on January 31, 1757. This was a very distinguished gathering, and our lists 
give the names of all of those present, ninety-five in number, including the Earl of 
Loudon and the Governor of Halifax. This was probably John Adams of the First 
Lodge in Boston. The President was at this time a young law student in Worcester. 


"A Captain Adams is reported as being present at the Feast of St. John, September 28, 
1778, and again September 21, 1779. This could not have been the President as he 
held no military rank, and at least on one of those occasions was in Paris. 


"A Brother Adams, Christian name omitted, is reported as being present at the Feast 
of St. John the Evangelist, June 24, 1782. This could not have been the President as it 
is hardly probable that so distinguished a man as a future President had already 
become could have been recorded in the official minutes of the Grand Lodge as 
simply Brother Adams. 


"I think it may be said with as much certainty as is possible in any historic statement 
that John Adams was not a Freemason." 


In addition to the above consult THE BUILDER, Vol. II, page 351; Vol. V, pages 
166, 334 for reference on John Adams. On John Quincy Adams see Vol. II, page 351; 
Vol. Ill, page 62, 256; Vol. IV, page 347; Vol. V, page 209, 336. 



THE COMENIUS SOCIETY 


I have received a letter from a brother of mine in Germany - he also is a Mason - 
asking me to contribute a bit toward what he calls The Comenius Society. Before 
sending him any cast I want to know what I am helping. Can you tell me anything 
about this Comenius Society ? L. D. von K. L., New York. 


The Comenius Society was organized in 1891. It was named for Johan Amos 
Comenius (often used in the form Eomensky) the last Bishop of the Moravians, and a 
famous educator, bom in Moravia in 1592. Two hundred and forty-six men signed the 
call for organization, among them being Kuno Fischer, Eucken, Deussen, and 
Paulsen. The purpose of the Society was to foster idealistic education, especially 
among the masses, and it has organized a number of schools, university extension 
courses, and that sort of thing; and it has lent its influence to reform movements 
designed to check the abusive use of alcoholic liquors, tobacco, and slushy literature. 
It publishes a monthly which before the war was called "Monatschefte": since the war 
the name has been changed to "Geisterkultur and Volksbildung," or, "Mindculture 
and Popular Education." The Society claims at present to number in its membership 
some three hundred Masonic lodges and these lodges are now helping it to launch a 
drive for financial support, a thing made necessary by the devastations of the Great 
War. Your brother, no doubt, is helping on with this drive. As to what extent the 
Society is worthy of financial support THE BUILDER cannot say; neither does it 
know how reliable are the claims the Society makes for itself. We would welcome 
information from any quarter. 


* * * 


WANTS TRUTH ABOUT TEMPLARS 


Can I accept with any degree of truth the writings of that classic authority on 
Freemasonry who is accepted and quoted the world over from his writings upon that 



subject - Albert G. Mackey, M. D., author of "Lexicon of Freemasonry" in which he 
states: 


"Notwithstanding the efforts of King and Pope the Order of Templars was not entirely 
extinguished. In France it still exists and ranks among its members some of the most 
influential Noblemen of the Kingdom. In England the Encampment of Baldwin which 
was established at Bristol by the Templars who returned with Richard I from 
Palestine still (1852) continues to hold its regular meetings and is believed to have 
preserved the ancient costume and ceremonies of the order. This encampment with 
another one at Bath and a third at York constituted the three original encampments in 
England. From these have emanated the existing encampments in the British Islands 
and United States so that the order as it now exists in Britain and America is a lineal 
descendant of the ancient order." 


Albert G. Mackey, M. D., also in the "Lexicon of Freemasonry" gives a completed 
list of Grand Masters of the Templar Order from French sources, from Hugh de 
Payens 1118 down through continuously with date of year each one served unto that 
of. Sir Sidney Smith 1838. If these writings of the author are wrong and incorrect like 
the productions of many of our extemporaneous writers and speakers and officers 
who do sometimes admit that they are not speaking from the results of research, why 
does the Fraternity as a whole officially not ask that whichever one is erroneous be 
expunged from our libraries and publications ? C. D. P., New York. 


Your query, Brother Proper, is in all strictness a challenge to the literati of the Craft, 
and we prefer to let it stand as such. Ye editor is now organizing a group of special 
researches for the purpose of ventilating the whole vexed question of Templar origins. 


* * * 


WHY DOES "THE BUILDER" COPYRIGHT ITS ARTICLES? 



Would I be considered impertinent if I were to inquire why THE BUILDER 
copyrights all its articles? It would seem to me a better plan to let the whole Fraternity 
have the use of them. A. M. K., Ohio. 


Your question is not impertinent and your point is well taken. The National Masonic 
Research Society copyrights all articles published in THE BUILDER in order that it 
can publish in serial form forthcoming books. It is obvious that an author cannot 
publish a book in serial form unless he is so protected. Other Masonic journals can 
republish articles from THE BUILDER by making the usual request. 


* * * 


HOW TO ORDER BOOKS FROM PUBLISHERS 


Living in a little town without a book store or even a library I am at a loss to know 
how to get books I need. Isn't there some agency, or something of that kind that I can 
use to get books for me ? M. D. S., Idaho. 


Your best bet is to order direct from the publisher. If you do not have the name of the 
publisher of the book you want, or have his name but not his address, write to the 
Secretary of the State Library Board of your state: if you have no such secretary write 
to the librarian of the nearest public library. Once you have the publisher's name and 
address direct your letter accordingly and be sure to give correct title, date, and full 
name of author. The publisher will then give you the postpaid retail price of the book, 
you can remit by money order, and the book will be promptly mailed to you. In case a 
publisher cannot sell a book direct he will always give you, at your request, the name 
of the nearest dealer. Buying books is not more difficult or mysterious than buying 
bread, or coal, or a Ford automobile. If you try it a few times you will quickly get the 
hang of it. It is a good thing to try. A house without books is like a man without a 
head. 



OLD AGE AND FREEMASONRY 


I have been requested to deliver the address when our lodge presents a medal to one 
of its charter members. Will you give me some suggestions in that line? I know that 
this request may be somewhat out of the ordinary, but I do not know where elsewhere 
to look. W. E. M., Florida. 


In such an address you will very naturally have much to say concerning old age. 

There are a number of books on that subject, among which may be mentioned 
Campbell's "Grow Old Along With Me," and "Over the Tea Cups," by O. W. Holmes. 
There are numberless essays and chapters. See especially "The Patriarchs" by Bro. J. 
F. Newton, published in THE BUILDER for March 1916, page 67. See article "On 
Growing Old" in The Atlantic Monthly, for June 1915; Montaigne's essay "Of Age"; 
Bacon's essay "Of Youth and Age"; Emerson's chapter "Old Age" in his "Society and 
Solitude"; Stevenson's "Crabbed Age and Youth" in his "Virginibus Puerisque"; 
Lamb's essay "The Superannuated Man" in his "Last Essays of Ella"; and see 
Benson's "From a College Window," page 28. A very excellent poem, appropriate for 
your use, was published in THE BUILDER, April 1916, page 101: it is entitled 
"When Old Age Comes" and was written by Burges Johnson. If you have access to it 
you would enjoy to read Cicero's "De Senectute," the most famous book, perhaps, 
ever written on the theme. As to long service in Freemasonry what could be better 
than this, a sentence from one of the pages of Albert Pike: "There is nothing which 
will so well remunerate a man, when the days of his life are shortening to the winter 
solstice, as faithful service in the true interest of Masonry." 


* * * 


ARTICLES IN "THE BUILDER" ON KING SOLOMON'S TEMPLE 



In any of the volumes of the magazine prior to 1918 can there be found any 
discussion or papers relating to the plan of King Solomon's Temple, and how to 
reconcile the differences found in the various descriptions of the same recorded in the 
Old Testament? N. L. T., Colorado. 


In THE BUILDER for March, 1916, Brother George W. Warvelle discusses the 
"Legends of King Solomon" and touches briefly upon the comparative historicity of 
the Biblical accounts. In the number for April, 1916, Brother Asahel W. Gage places 
the accounts from Kings and Chronicles alongside each other for convenient 
comparison. On page 64 of the issue for February of the same year you will find an 
instructive letter from Jos. W. Eggleston who tries to solve one of the problems 
concerning the Temple. Through the issues for April, May, and June of 1917 the late 
Brother Wm. A. Paine contributed an exceptionally able series of articles on Masonry 
and King Solomon's Temple in which you will find a number of items concerning 
your own particular problems. But the articles that may throw the most light on those 
problems will doubtless be the series on "The Pillars of the Porch" by the late Brother 
John W. Barry, which began in THE BUILDER for June 1917. 


If you desire to go into the matter at length look up the volumes on Kings and 
Chronicles in The International Critical Commentary of the Bible. 


* * * 


ORIGIN OF "SHIBBOLETH" 


One of the things that seem very curious to me is the word "shibboleth" and the 
explanation that is given to it. What is the origin of the word? 1 am not where 1 can get 
hold of books very easily so I am asking you to help me out a little bit, and oblige. J. 

J. B., Montana. 



"Shibboleth" has come to be the synonym for a password through the narrative found 
in the Bible, Judges 12:1-6. Because the tribesmen of Ephraim refused to assist him at 
a critical juncture in his quarrel with the Ammonites, Jephthah, after he had defeated 
the latter, turned on the Ephraimites to punish them for what he deemed their 
treachery. Jephthah was chieftan of the tribesmen of Gilead. "And the Gileadites took 
the fords of the Jordan against the Ephraimites. And it was so, that, when any of the 
fugitives of Ephraim said, Let me go over, the men of Gilead said unto him, Art thou 
an Ephraimite?" The two tribes were closely related in appearance so that it was 
difficult to distinguish between them, just as one cannot always tell whether a man be 
an Englishman or a Scotchman, but, as in the latter case, there were certain 
differences of speech that no artifice could conceal. "If he said, Nay; then said they 
unto him, Say now Shibboleth; and he said Sibboleth; for he could not frame to 
pronounce it right; then they laid hold an him and slew him at the fords of the 
Jordan." It is curious to note that this is not the only instance in history where such a 
thing has occurred. During the awful days of the Sicilian Vespers a suspect was 
similarly tried. The name of dried peas among the Sicilians was "ciceri": if the man 
pronounced the "c" with a "chee" sound he was allowed to pass as being a Sicilian; 
but if he gave it an "s" sound, he was captured as being a Frenchman. During a battle 
between the Danes and Saxons on St. Bryce's Day in 1002, if tradition is to be trusted, 
the words "Chichester Church" were employed as a like test. 


* * * 


THE MASONIC CONNECTIONS OF PRESIDENT JAMES BUCHANAN 


As a member of the Society, I write to ask for some information. Was President 
James Buchanan a Mason? I have heard that he was and again that he wasn't. 


J. T. M., North Carolina. 


Brother J. Fred Fisher, Secretary of Lodge No. 43, F. & A. M., Lancaster, 
Pennsylvania, has given us the following information: 



"President James Buchanan was made a Mason in Lodge No. 43, Lancaster, Pa. on 
December 11, 1816. He was entered by W. M. Bro. John Reynolds, and was passed 
and raised by W. M. Bro. George Whitaken on January 24, 1817. He was elected 
Junior Warden, December 13, 1820, and Worshipful Master December 23, 1822. At 
the expiration of his term of office, he was appointed the first District Deputy Grand 
Master of this district. He was elected an honorary member of the lodge March 10, 
1868. 


"He was also a member of Royal Arch Chapter, No. 43." 


* * * 


ANENT NEGRO MASONRY 


From whence did Negro Masonry arise? H.A.S., Washington, D. C. 


Prince Hall and thirteen other Negroes were made Masons at Boston, March 6, 1776, 
in a military lodge, and when this army lodge was discontinued these men applied to 
the Grand Lodge of England (the so-called "Modem") for a charter. The charter was 
issued September 20th, 1784, but, owing to we know not what delays, was not 
received by Prince Hall and his fellows until 1787, at which time they formally 
organized themselves into a lodge registered on the rolls of the Grand Lodge of 
England as "African Lodge, No. 429." After a variety of vicissitudes, about which 
there is still a deal of controversy, this lodge became dormant, was erased from the 
Grand Lodge roll, and then, after a few years, was revived, this time as an 
independent body. From this lodge grew the "Prince Hall Grand Lodge," and from 
that Grand Lodge the great bulk of so-called Negro Masonry has descended. The 
subject has been the occasion for ceaseless debate, much of it unfortunately 
acrimonious, and there is no need here to enter into all the questions as to legality, 
and all that. If you care to go into the matter thoroughly write to the Grand Secretary 



of the Grand Lodge of Washington for a copy of Grand Lodge Proceedings 
containing their famous Negro Masonry report. This was written by Brother W. H. 
Upton, P. G. M. of Washington, was published in book form, and remains the locus 
classicus on the subject. 


— o — 


CORRESPONDENCE 


AN OLD MASONIC PITCHER 


The accompanying photographs were contributed by Brother A. E. Harris, B. D. No. 
1, Box 189, Sherwood, Oregon, who is in possession of the pitcher. In a letter he has 
given the family tradition as to this relic which will be not without interest to our 
readers: 


"According to family tradition the pitcher was made with five others about five 
hundred years ago. It is said to have been brought to this country from Scotland by 
John McDonald. His birth is not known. He was married to Freelove Bucklin of 
Cumberland, R. I., March 6, 1732. He was made a freeman (citizen entitled to vote) 
May 6, 1735. He died November 14, 1744, at Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. Then 
comes some confusion in the tradition. One story is that he died while there on 
Masonic duty, which is very possible for there were Masons there at that time. The 
other is that he was one of the first of the Rhode Island volunteers who went to the 
siege of Louisburg. His wife and family resided at Johnstone, R. I., at that time. The 
estate was settled April 16, 1747. (Book 4, pages 179 and 208, Providence, R. I., 
Records of Probate.) 


"According to tradition the pitcher became the possession of the oldest son who 
became a Mason. After the Revolutionary War the sons went west and the pitcher 



became the property of Sarah McDonald when she began housekeeping in 1812. She 
was my great grandmother. "There are no stamps or marks on the bottom of the 
pitcher or elsewhere - so the maker is not known. On pp. 111-13 of 'The Old China 
Book' by N. Hudson Moore there are pictures and descriptions of jugs something like 
ours." 


The verse on one side of the pitcher is the second stanza of the famous old 
"Apprentice's Song" which was written (so it is supposed) by the actor, Matthew 
Birkhead, and first published by him in Read's "Weekly Journal," December 1, 1722. 
It was later published in the 1723 edition of Anderson's Constitutions. This stanza 
makes it impossible for the jug to have been made earlier than 1722. 


— o — 


GOVERNOR WISE OF VIRGINIA 


In the September issue of THE BUILDER, page 292, a correspondent invites the 
writer to confirm his statement in relation to the Wises of Virginia. He is correct in all 
save the name of one political party. Henry A. Wise was Governor of the State when 
the Civil war broke out. He did advise "fighting it out in the Union," and opposed 
secession. The legislature twice defeated the ordinance of secession, but when it was 
represented that unless the State did secede it would be obliged to fight against the 
rest of the South, the State seceded. The writer's mother had three cousins in the 
legislature at the time, who voted against secession. There were exactly as many 
emancipation societies south of the Mason and Dixon line as north of it, and men 
were frequently liberating their slaves in their wills. Washington himself did so. The 
war was to settle a point in the Constitution as to whether or not a State had the right 
to secede, and the negro was but an incident. Henry A. Wise was elected Governor on 
the Democratic ticket. There never was a "Know Nothing" party: it was the American 
Party, and was nicknamed "Know Nothing" by its enemies. 



John S. Wise was elected to Congress in 1882 on the Republican ticket. He was 
defeated two years before, on the Democratic ticket I believe. He afterwards practiced 
law in New York City and very successfully. He served in the Confederate Army. G. 
W. Baird, District of Columbia. 


— o — 


AN ANTI-MASONIC RESEARCH GROUP 


The National Masonic Research Society, under direction of J. H. Tatsch, associate 
editor THE BUILDER, is engaged in special research work on the subject of Anti- 
Masonry. Brethren interested in this fascinating field of Masonic history are requested 
to communicate with Brother Tatsch, indicating in which one or more of the 
following classifications they wish to participate: 


1. Anti-Masonry in Great Britain prior to 1717. 


2. Anti-Masonry in Great Britain since 1717. 


3. Anti-Masonry in America prior to 1826. 


4. The Morgan Excitement and the Anti-Masonic Party, 1826-1840. 


5. Anti-Masonry in America 1840 to 1883. 



6. Anti-Masonry in America since 1886. 


7. Anti-Masonry in Continental Europe prior to 1788. 


8. Anti-Masonry elsewhere than America and Europe. 


9. Exposes of the 18th Century (any language). 


10. Exposes of the 19th Century. 


1 1 . Engravings and illustrations applicable to any of the foregoing sub-divisions. 


All communications on this subject should be addressed to J. H. Tatsch, 2920 First 
Avenue East, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 


— o — 


YE EDITOR'S CORNER 


Can you write short stories or novels? Publishers are offering a big opportunity in 
Masonic fiction. 


* * * 



I have been traveling about over the country during the past two months, and have 
found the Fraternity in a flourishing condition everywhere. The usual complaint is, - 
We are growing too fast. 


* * * 


Have you any second-hand Masonic books to sell? Let us know if you have. Perhaps 
we can help you dispose of them. 


* * * 


Brother J. F. Newton's "The Builders" is outselling any other Masonic book. It has 
appeared in an English edition: also it has been translated into Dutch, and will be 
translated into French and German. A brother in Damascus, Syria, is preparing to 
translate it into Persian. 


— o — 


JANUARY BOOK LIST 


"The Religion of Freemasonry”, by, Henry Josiah Whymper, with an introduction by 
William James Hughan. Edited by George William Speth. We have purchased the 
only remaining copies of this classic. (See THE BUILDER for September, 1922, page 
282.) Slightly shopworn but unused. Paper covers, 260 pages. When the few copies in 
stock become exhausted the work will be entirely out of print. $2.15 



"The Builders - A Story and Study of Masonry," by Brother Joseph Fort Newton, 
former Editor-in-Chief of THE BUILDER, is now the fastest selling Masonic book in 
the world. It is being translated into several languages. (Special price in lots of twelve 
or more copies.) Bound in substantial blue cloth: beautifully printed. Single copies 
$1.75 


"Questions on The Builders." Compiled by the Cincinnati Masonic Study Club to be 
used in connect/on with "The Builders," by Joseph Fort Newton. Paper, 13 pages, 
closely printed $.15 


"The Story of the Craft," Lionel Vibert. One of the best of brief histories of Masonry. 
Cloth binding; 86 pages. (Reviewed in THE BUILDER, April 1922, page 120) $1.35 


"Freemasonry Before the Existence of Grand Lodges'" Lionel Vibert. Embodies 
findings of Quatuor Coronati Lodge of Research on Masonic history prior to 1717. A 
standard. Cloth binding, 164 pages. (Reviewed in THE BUILDER, October 1917, 
page 314.). $1.75 


"A Concise History of Freemasonry:' Robert Freke Gould. Revised by Fred J. W. 
Crowe. Absolutely indispensable. Cloth binding. 349 pages. (See THE BUILDER, 
January 1922, page 23: June 1922, page 183.) $5.00 


"Ancient Freemasonry and the Old Dundee Lodge No. 18 - 1722-1920," Arthur 
Heiron. Very readable. In one year it has established itself as a standard work. Index 
supplied. Description on request. Cloth binding, 303 pages. (Reviewed in THE 
BUILDER September 1921, page 243.) $5.00 



"Masons as Makers of America," Madison C. Peters. Gives account of all prominent 
Revolutionary heroes who were Masons. Has gone through several editions. Cloth 
binding, 60 pages $1.00 


"Freemasonry and the Ancient Gods," J.S.M. Ward. Opens up a new field. Full of 
curious information. Cloth binding. 360 pages. (Reviewed four times in THE 
BUILDER: March 1922, page 89; May 1922, page 151.) $7.50 


"Collected Essays on Freemasonry," Robert Freke Gould. Important treatises by the 
master Masonic historian. Large size, beautifully printed. Cloth binding, 300 pages. 
(Reviewed in THE BUILDER, March 1918, page 93.) $7.00 


"Symbolism of Freemasonry," Albert G. Mackey. New edition of a Masonic classic, 
revised by Robert I. Clegg. De Lure fabrikoid binding, 311 pages. (Old edition 
reviewed in THE BUILDER, August 1920, page 226. New edition reviewed in the 
December 1922 issue.) $3.65 


"Masonic Jurisprudence," Albert G. Mackey. Indispensable to Masters, Wardens and 
lodge workers. Cloth binding, 570 pages $3.15 


"Military Lodges," Robert Freke Gould. Concludes with a chapter on Masonic 
beginnings in America. Cloth binding, 232 pages $2.15 


"Notes on Laurence Dermott and His Work," W.M. Bywater. Necessary to an 
understanding of history of English Grand Lodges. Cloth binding, 54 pages. $.75 


"Medieval Architecture," Arthur Kingsley Porter, Harvard University. Two volumes 
of 500 pages each. Full of information of great value to students of the history of 



Freemasonry. Recommended by the editor of THE BUILDER. Abundantly 
illustrated. Complete indexes and bibliographies. $13.00 


"The Meaning of Freemasonry," W.L. Wilmshurst. Lectures delivered in English 
lodges on the symbolism and philosophy of Freemasonry; accounts of ancient 
systems of mysteries, initiations, etc. New. Cloth binding, 216 pages $3.25 


"The Arcane Schools," John Yarker. A famous book. Especially interesting to 
students of the occult. Cloth binding, 535 pages $5.00 


"The Kabbalah, Its Doctrines, Development and Literature," Christian D. Ginsberg. 
For many years the standard. A new reprint. Cloth binding, 232 pages $2.35 


"Mormonism and Masonry," S.H. Goodwin, Grand Secretary of Utah. Printed for the 
Society by the Grand Lodge of Utah. A fascinating story of a little known chapter in 
the history of American Masonry. Paper binding, 38 pages $.25 


"The Atholl Lodges - Their Authentic History. Being a Memorial of the Grand Lodge 
of England 'According to the Old Constitutions' Compiled from Official Sources," by 
Robert Freke Gould. Cloth binding, 192 pages. $1.10 


"Things a Freemason Should Know," by Fred J. W. Crowe. Eight chapters of compact 
information about English Freemasonry. Cloth binding, 86 pages. $1.25 


"The Gospel of Freemasonry," by "Uncle Silas" A very rapidly selling book written in 
a new vein. Third edition. Cloth binding, 60 pages $1.00 



"The Evolution of Freemasonry - An Authentic Story of Freemasonry. Profusely 
Illustrated with Portraits of Distinguished Freemasons and Views of Memorable 
Relics and Places of Singular Masonic Interest " by Delmar Duane Darrah. Very 
substantially bound in green buckram. Calendered paper 422 pages $5.00 


"1722 Constitutions" (reproduced by Photographic plates from an original copy in the 
archives of the Iowa Masonic Fibrary. Cedar Rapids.) Edition limited $2.00 


"Philosophy of Freemasonry," Roscoe Pound $1.26 


"Fectures on Masonic Jurisprudence," Roscoe Pound $1.50. 


"The Story of Old Glory, The Oldest Flag,” Bro. I.W. Barry, P.G.M., Iowa, paper 
covers, illustrated. A story of the Flag and Masonry $.50 


"The Comacines, Their Predecessors and Their Successors," and "Further Notes on 
the Comacine Masters," W. Ravenscroft. The two works in one binding, paper covers, 
illustrated. $1.00 


"Further Notes on the Comacine Masters," by W. Ravenscroft, paper covers, 
illustrated $.50 


"Symbolism of the First Degree," Gage, pamphlet $.15 


"Symbolism of the Third Degree," Ball, pamphlet $.15 



"Deeper Aspects of Masonic Symbolism," Waite, pamphlet $.15 


"Report of the Masonic Overseas Mission." A special Number of THE BUILDER 
containing the full Report of the Masonic Overseas Mission on Their Efforts to 
Secure Governmental Permission to Engage in Independent War Relief Work 
Abroad. $.35 


"Military Lodges," G. Alfred Lawrence. Paper covers $.35 


"Freemasonry in America Prior to 1750," Melvin M. Johnson, P.G.M., Massachusetts 
$1.35 


"A Vest Pocket History of Freemasonry," by Brother H.L. Haywood (Special Prices 
on lot orders for 25 or more copies for presentation purposes.) Single copies $.25 


"What an Entered Apprentice Ought to Know," Hal Riviere. (Special prices on lot 
orders for 25 or more copies for presentation purposes.) Pamphlet, paper covers. 
Single copies $.15 


BOOKS BY DUDLEY WRIGHT 


"Robert Burns and Freemasonry." Contains chapter by Dr. Joseph Fort Newton. Cloth 
binding, 113 pages. (Reviewed in THE BUILDER, August 1921, page 235.) $1.75 



"Masonic Legends and Traditions." Cloth binding 152 pages. (Reviewed in THE 
BUILDER, February 1922, page 57. Review by A. E. Waite reprinted in THE 
BUILDER, July 1922, page 221.) $1.50 


"The Eleusinian Mysteries and Rites." One of the best accounts of one of the most 
influential of the Ancient Mysteries. Cloth binding, 108 pages. $1.50 


"Woman and Freemasonry." Especially valuable for students of the Order of the 
Eastern Star. Cloth binding, 184 pages $1.90 


THE FOUNDATIONS OF A MASONIC LIBRARY 


Mackey's "Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry," latest revised edition. Two large volumes 
with total of 943 pages. Second volume includes a large descriptive bibliography of 
Masonic books, also a long glossary to explain Masonic words and phrases. De Luxe 
fabrikoid binding. $16.00 


Mackey's "Revised History of Freemasonry," by Robert I. Clegg. Seven large 
volumes with total of 2376 pages. Complete index covering all volumes. Illustrated. 
De Luxe fabrikoid binding $56.00 


1915 bound volume of THE BUILDER, 312 pages $3.75 


1916 bound volume of THE BUILDER, 384 pages $3.75 


1917 bound volume of THE BUILDER, 384 pages $3.75 



1918 bound volume of THE BUILDER, 366 pages $3.75 


1919 bound volume of THE BUILDER, 336 pages $3.75 


1920 bound volume of THE BUILDER. 344 pages $3.75 


1921 bound volume of THE BUILDER, 368 pages $3.75 


1922 bound volume THE BUILDER, 388 pagers $3.76 


The above volumes bound in Goldenrod buckram. 


A very limited number of bound volumes for each of the above years, in three-quarter 
morocco binding $4.76 


1915-1916 bound volumes of THE BUILDER, (two years in one cover), Goldenrod 
buckram binding, 696 pages. $6.00 


These bound volumes may be purchased separately or as a set. They comprise the 
most interesting and complete Masonic reference library in existence. 


Consolidated Five Year Index to THE BUILDER (for the years 1915 to 1919, 
inclusive), paper covers $1.25 



We carry these books in stock solely for the accommodation of our members. Profits 
are returned to the treasury of the Society, to be used to enlarge its services. 


This list embraces the standard works on Masonry and allied subjects that we are able 
to keep in stock. It is being augmented as rapidly as possible. Many of the best known 
and older books are out of print and Impossible to obtain: of new titles only the better 
class are selected. 


The reader is urged to order from the Book List published In the current issue of THE 
BUILDER because the supply of many titles is very limited. 


Since publishers are constantly revising their prices to us the above prices are subject 
to change without notice. The prices shown include postage. 


Address all orders to 


NATIONAL MASONIC RESEARCH SOCIETY, 2920 First Avenue East. 
CEDAR RAPIDS, IOWA.